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,^.,^ ^ : ^\ , UiJij Isi^l^ ol>-al Lfil * Consonants Sj^L^I 

^^^ - 4^ o5^i ^ - U^j .e^l .vub .^ij ^W^^ ' ^^» 

JlaiJl di^ c> vowels l2^L^\ olj-^Vt ji ol^>=Jlj U <uii. ^> 

^jji ^jaIaUI ^ak,-^! ^.^^ ^ < s^l^i <3U^j oi^ ui^ 

. Lg^l ^_y4:il; ^_^l ^^1 J^i^ J 'M ^,>^ 
Rolled (r) Sj^» D»j^V( 

c^l£ ^^ 6-J ■ ^-^s^^ b'j^ ^' ^> c> 6^-^' ^^^ j'->^ 

-Vio - 



'ij^Ji Lk> (^ u.ji^ ^:,Uiji ^j^_j .j^^i ^^^Lj .iji uw! 

. ^. JUJI jic i^^^l jLSjVl ^^inj .^3^j| ^ ^^L^, 

J jJi jM^ ^:,is Uj^ . SjUjij s^i ^ ^^.^ ^L^ ^^ .^^ (-^ 

oUJJI ^> cyb <^ oiij Ijl dif dJjj,) : j^^ dJa lj_^j , j^lJl 
.(VY u- ^jr - i^ 6-"^ vU.VI i^U-^) jljSUI ^ <l^ L^ ^^jii, 

1 • f ^ f 

2-^ . J^>iJb ^ii^i ce- 6- -^U (^ ^..^ c^UUI ^) ^ ^^1 
.^Vi ,^ U^^l ji.) 5^ai <^ ji^ ^1 (3^ j^^ ^^UJi Uiij 
l^Lli^l U^ 1:j^ 6l^^ L^ oV! ^ 6>JW J-li^ i>: ^1 L^f 

.(1 * io-^J^\) ^j^\ l^ Ahl .^ji\\j ^^j^q-H cu^ ^ 4JU Ul 



Lateral : (l) ^2LcuL?J» iJtj^Vl 

^ S_ii£ 'i^^i -'^^ .' ' ^iiJl A-* LilsJI ^jLIl-VI Jj-t-al j^^ ^UuiJI i-J^ 
j^La. t> ^1^1 1 JfJ >AAl6 d^ 2r^ tjUj ' *^l^l jjj^ j-1a2 f-iJl -l=^^j 

dd^ . j-^Tj l ."r l . \15--^ Lc^ a j£. t2»^ ^-^ ' jU^^ Stops (SjjjJJl) 

^!>cl a^j S^Ui c^ - 6^1 J'^b ^^b ^^^ - <^^J^^ J^ 
pl^i tiA ^jj^ U^ jUi; <:iUj * ^i J!iU ^.1^1 Jj^ ^ ^^ 

. a j...Uat l ^jkl}\ iia^V j5j ( j^LiJI 0.>^Li ^ '^j^mM CiJL^ -j^j^Ii^Ji 

e 

J A \ < t J / j t a .1 ...1 1 jj_jjLiJ-cVLi ^jtiiilis^ ^jJA_<-ij-a ^^^ Cj I j_<-.o jU 
'^ (^UJl) ti^>*:a) 0^>^Lj .O-i-a^ (_yi 6^ ^ ^ jL^ ^U^' 

cj.>^I ^ ^ ^_>^ tl,L*iUI ij*^» : ^^ .hf^^ cj-^ LT^ tin' J^ 
, .^L-j-^H j_yic \ ^().Aljl£.l tl>jt tjLuJJI jjlui-* LLi-^Li ^UJLJj ('^Ij4^0 

jjj-a S_)^^^ 2_.-aLa.) S_uLjJI 4_^LiJI aIa j^^ ^J>j^^ 6^J 

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: Lu,>^ ,_^«^, i^^i ^ ^:^U ^V! ^ U^j 



Nasals ^^.j^Vt Ctlj^Vl 
JJI ^ 2^^ ^ Ulj Ux=^ ^1^1 ^^^^ ol^VI jIj^I ji^ 

■ ^-^^^ ihj^ i> *^'^! AiuAi soft palate t:^l di^l ^^^'.-^^ 









Joe 






L4J * phoneme j) phonetic unit ^j^-^ aa^j ^-L-^^l Idfj oj^^j 

^ ^jjl jLi^l ._A-t^!-i j:hH^' (> ^(^ U-iJ^ ^ <A^^\ LgjUu*. 
. ailophoneraes J variants Ulli^ oU^ jl a^^ jj^ L^ _>fl^^ ' ^ 
uiUJI Ji* oij^L SJ±L* 2^U c^j, )j! u^U '^.^ !>1^ ^>4^ 

L^i Uiij . (.l^i jj^ ^4^ ^.^-^^ uU^J u'-^J^ L^l ^l ■ Jj^ 
.Lo^ JLIJ! S^U jl£ ^!^l *-s^j Jt J^W (o^^^j) o'^^ 6^-^-^ 

t^ ^j^j ' ^i^» -sj^j 3^^) ^'-^' 2^l^l ^^ ^j 
^^ij ^L JkUl jl^ - f^!iUI U4JU0 <^jiz^ (U liil^ t> Uji^ 

;U-*^lj SjU-l continuous stops hSjIa^I oU5^1» (U^ ^) ^ J^l 



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^-i . <^.H^ (..j-i^ J^L <SU U li^j . i^^i ^i^Vl i^^ki. 

4 J-ja-iJI ol «_c-=sVI)) ; ■• ■ . '. . II I , , . :: II . f S.„ . . f 

U -■ J •", .r-- ■ u J ^ >i ^ ijj; OIJ-.^ ill ^_a-i_,^ ^1 

iii (> U^lu j^ ^ \^^.^ J, dj^ - (ill, ^j^\^) 
o^^l *^ ^^ (iijj) ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^1 ^^^^^ j^ 

jo^ j^ ,:^j . ^.^1 (^^) ^^ ^ ^^_j| ^^_^ ^^^ 

^^ I4I.J,, : J_^^ , ^Ij ^jiii ji ^^LSii, ^^^^ ^^^^ 

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(Sj=Hi ^-^ ^j^ J-^J ' jJ^^ U-i^j» -Jj^ ^'^ 'U.^U Lai 
^\j6.y a^ J\) o^i cP'W^ f ^' Jt *^'->^'^ ^Ji^ ^J^^ Ls^ 

(j\j dJjJj^ djlj-^J ftl-^J'J OJ^'J f^->^' o'.^-*" "^ JJ. ' -J'" f'-^'-.-'s J 

SjUjh ^j^^ j!) £j^^ ^Uai: c:*ljJ! ^_5-J f-\j-^\ '1^ 6^j ^ 3^^! 

■ crijj^^ u*-^-^^^ uU^' 
5^_^^ ^1 < ^\j dj^\j f :^l ^ L^ < 5^(^ 3_j^>=^ dJj 0^1 ^'-r-) 

^ . (c>^Lk ^^ \-fl* JjVl l3y^\j) Ou;jVi oi^^Vl sJlA oi 

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»tj^l jj>. (Pb. ^^ ,a^|_j j^ ^ l^^,^ ^^ J ^^^ ^^ ^j 

-1^1 EJ^ J-^ ^ 3>)ni^ _,4Ji. . (_^ 3_^ ^^) Li_^ ^i_^ 
.d^U. ^ ^^^_j i^jVI o!^Vl .1^ j.^^ Ui^ , ^^^^ ;^^^^ 
o^b ^iUI ^ US , (^.i^ ^L^i ^L^j ^1^) ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 1^ 
' lj-*l- SjiJI ol^Vi .1^ ^_^ (,|j| ^ US , Lij=^ ^! j^ij 

ol>^VU S^^l oi^^Vi .i^ c.^^ U^ ^j . Li^..^ iLi^ 

■ cu j^l jiilll ^^ l^LSi^VI 
S^JI cij^Vl ^j=^ Sj.^1 i^jVI c.!,^Vl 4l4 ^U:ii| j^j 
Ui^l a^ .jUi:! V . .1^1 jj.^ Jik. i^U ^J 1+1. 1^!^! ja,j 

^^ c^! d!3j l^^wU! .0^ ^L.) ^1 JU J^ ^ ^)^^ 
S^ r^^u^h 6J^ ^^^ ^ ^.^ A^j^^^ ^! 1^ ^ jj^ _ '^'U.jVI 



Sj^^t C&^ U:?^' ''-^b" -^-^J-hH- Jj-^ 04^' J-^J (^^u^LJsJ! djj-^i 
1 3^-^-"^ ( <.rM/^^ ((Ajaujjj-aJ))) j! (((Liij^Ji)) cjl^^-feoVI. ojLl.*=^ . ((Sjiiijtj 

idjj t> ^Vij .Sjbk^ij sjiiJi of^ A^ji^^iJi 14.^1^ lW^^ U^ 

Sjj-L^j !^ Ujlj^ ^^>^ i^* o(,>^ VS J^ j-A < ^i J^ j^^ ^-^^^ 
CM ^^U4:^^ l}-^ f^ c>J (^UU f^b a>^b f^' !^j) C5>>^^ J^ 



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- / -^7—^- '--'^►-s i' J-aj l-JJ._>^ iJjAaJI pI,^^| 

(^-^^! 2:'^)^ 6UlJi a^ c^l) o^^^ ^Uli ^^1 Jl ^1^1^ 
^jSi^i ^j^\ )^ ^^ ^1^ ^^^ ^,^ ^p ^ (^^ ^^ j^^ 

O^ C^\j ^1^ ^:^(^ ^^, L^i^J J, ^^_^^ S^l^^l^ 
. ^\^^Jh oU^^I JlaJlj .UUIj jUJ)^ ^^i 5_^ 3_^^, 



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UjUu LaU JjjI ^I <^:j^^^ SjLii j^ j_y^^La * (LLaJLk) Ij^i.^ Lj,j^^ 
: Jlli ( Sj^>ll c*l,>L-aVl ?-l,>fJ ^IjJi ^l>4 £jj^ '^ jj^'".' (_jil^ Ly-^b 

a J t) ^ " ^ O j -.--^ 1 <^ ^ a ^ J •>- ^ AjJ-uj i— flj-^ J— A a_)A£j 4_jj_i_i_uj J\__Sj» 

^ ■ « s - ^ 

JIajj (c^j^ i3^^ ^3t^J-^ i3iajJ! ?-\_lA£.Li l.S[!!i -^.a IjIa^ 5^5^ jJI CjI^^Jj-sVI 

, LSik^ dK'-^VI 11a (jji \-^\'^\ ^IjU o^J • '''.^fJ' C5>?-* i3^ is^ 

uij^i» La:H^ ULixuj < jl>lb ^-^b '-^*^' Lr*J * ^^ W^ ''-^i^J 

jj^lj A^iUlj f-l^lj ue^b '-^*^' Ls^J "■ ^^ S^jJIj SjjjiJ! 
^ cJS Ciii* ob ' ^ J->^ H'* ■^^^' "J^ ^ o ^^^J j • j'->^b ^h ^'Ub 

- roo - 






■ L?^ tin' uUi 1_A^ jjl jJSj ^^ ^ j (^j^ali) ^ 

c^^l jU^U ^i^^l olj^Vl ^ Ll^ ji^lj ^LJ) ^j^^ 
tJJb Ih^ . l^l^xJI ZjiJ^jUj (<li^l) SjiJLj ia^^^l ,r^j-^lt ,3k: 

U5!j tJ:Hj^l o^Ia ^ j^ Iaaj . oLS^^ eiUsJl ^UL^ UjUJI 
<4-^L; 2-i-^ U ^^ ^V ^j^ <^ ^Ua cJIJjU^ dJ J 2-^j 



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. ((^LJJj jljJ'j f=-'j-lb f^b 6,i^b f"^' cr^j) resonants «cjLiVjJI» 
. * \ f- <■ 

. (jA^ Loji !^y b jW cr^ 






-LJU 



^> (^^^W ^^b) s^LJb j*>^b LJ:^^' t>* ^^ ' ^'-^'-^ f^b 6>^b 
Jil^ Li£ tjb ' ^^t^'^^^* '-^ ^^i^"-^ LS-* ^' c^b ^-^ 6^ ^' 



^Ul^--. dUj£j). : ^_yJUj JU . i^^l ,^ixAi Jj:lJI t> AiaJ^ . UjijuJI ^J^L; ^+^i*J UU^ -^J (^) 

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Sj^jiJI ^ Jii.^ ^^^^j , Consonants <^L^| ol,>^Vl ^> llJU 



<rf^t-i 









liA U^j . 1^ . Al^jl^ ^\^\ ,|J|^ ^^)^ ^1^ ^^, ^^^^, 

■ ol^^lj (s^jJIj 6j^.itJ|) u^^^^ ii«U^! ^\^^\ 

^ Consonants c«l^>^l ^ cJljU S^^Vl c*I^^Vl *j^ 
_,A4^ A_^ olj A.^ cS^I ^ L^^j , . ^/w^-H S^uVl ^U_JI 

L^^i^ ^ <^u ^1 ^ oi^^i ^ d^^sji^ ,:^i^ ^1^ ^:iUi _ s 

^ f.:iUI ^1^ ^^^ Of- cr^ ' H^l a- ^^^ ^.l^^l .1^ ^1 
<±j^ ^ ^\^j^\ ^1^ <u^ jt^^ Uii - lll^ii^ ^1 ^ ^^^ 

.^L£:^i oLi- djj ^ L^^U, .Sj^H^ I4K ^\j\j ^ji]\^ ^1^ ^:iU) _Y 

^l^^ l^^L^ 5^U ^ ol^^l <uio U^yVt ol^VI 60^ -r 
4^i*AJ= L;.^ dJ jj .Sonority ^^JL.;^! j-^^^U ^.^^ L^ Ji^ 

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OJui (^j^ )a^ . 1 ^^^-^ Cjlj.4-aVl aJ-A (3iaJ jlc ^l_^^l JJj-« ^-d>^ 
adA A-Xi-aj-L^iik. j_yic Jjj ^^^.t-aJI iJjtjjJI ^ C5>=*"' t^^'^^ tllLj-Aj 

#.liJ! *_d) cjj^iji i^ij-iij o>^b f^b f^' u' '^^ j^ljiiJi aj-a 

^ f! 9 

a JA ^j^ r^ '^^^ C^,^' OuaJ ^-j ^jljjV! a j^ J-**-^ "-^ o' *— ^^J^' u-*J 
A^! ^ \ '\'-''- jffl^- ^^i.^_;^^"^l 4_ij^4^l CjLLyljjJI Cjij^ . La^^^j jj-aljjiJI 
LLa* -^j -^*. ; L^_A-a.jlij) Liquids a^ \\ 1 II j\ A M i l . . ti l)) oIj-^^VLj pIjJIj 

(Vowel-like consonants «cjLS!_^I aLii^l)) La-LA:^. \ ^\\r ^j^^ilkjj (^^^ja«jUI 

i^j^l j-Aj ( ((CijL-2>)) jj[ A \,n\ t \ (jjlf Vocalic «A_iijL^))) ^ciki-a-oll 

=-f!^ ^ Laj-t-a^-j . j\ji\ \-^l LjL^i-= i dtjJIj tlijJJIj ^-j-aJU f^ ^j^-= 4.i^Li. ^$•^,'1 \ jSJ jij (^) 

fiii ^ ajLflj A.A^aJI ^b«^' jj-1^ Jl jJI (5 J*iJI ^p!!"^! i>iJI j^l ^ (j^j«=JI (j^ Jii . (>4iJj) ■ 

. JaIJI ,_jj£:. j_pL: Lailj Jaiil ^^ UfijUo-a ^Lj "^^(^^Ailj) i^jj-aJI 



.Cj[£^\ ^ SljL^J ^dS ^ ^_aij I j^ ^ ^j . Syllabic a<_iAkUl,) 

. bottomg little (jLo ^^ j_a La5[ 

<(4k^^^i oij^vi)) ^ukx^ji j^ ui ^^^^ ^sLi ^ jji iiA j$ 

'iS^^ H^ t>j ' H^ (> 'J^ ■ Vowels ojI^^^I jl oL^j^lj {^j^jj 

^-^'^ (j -u -f -J) <^y^i olj^Vl 6 J4J ^IjI ^^i c-ail^l ^j 
jUs! ^ <j)d. Ll^U Ui^ I43JIL ^1 Lpljja-^ Jl ^Lai:; (^^^f 

(jUI 4_LJU) - Jj jJi o)j-^Vl :A_L^ JXii Uj) ^it li )d-A 

(.Ldi: A.ili^ ^_^ «u.i^l)) ^Ls^ ^ ^aU,^! \X& ^ Jl Uj 

3^ c^^ fj4-^ o)J ((<iVaJI» ^1 ^141^ t3^ ^^ : j^Vi 



Jjj^l 11a jlt l^\^y^\ o^j ' -Gj^j ^LJ1\ ^jjj t3i=^l ^> 



Lfl^ : C^j^ ^ ^L^^t >-ij>Jb : (Jtji^l ^^) J^" -lU^ ^^^r^^ 

:Liuj tjl A-fl'^JJI (^i^j ■ (^*^JJ' ^j.^) '-«j>=^' t>j» ^L^e-*^^' 

. <(^^lj f^UJij ''^'J a>^b ^'>>^b f ^' 

.a<^Jaj aj.i^ jJij t^UJJ! JJJJ)) Wt^ -i-*^ ^J,>^' *j-^ u' L>*^L«.I 






: S,^^_«JI .^L^ j^ . ,|jV| ^ ^^.,^1^ UdJI U^ L^^ ^^,u, 

e 

-^0 j^ u^ *^ c> 3^1 c^j>)l C^j a^ dJjJj :^j^l ^lij jki 

^j^ aJVj ^ - L^UI ^ - c^^ , u^ ^^1 j^L^ .hr..l 
J oL^KJI ^ AJ.^*. ^1 aJL^I ^ ^^^.oJJ Lh^^ IJUl. ^^^I 



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S ^Kl l t^llj ^jl ai£.Li)> L^-la Sl^^>JUs LaJ£ O^l^ (jlJ *^>j1^I jl t-^J.^^' ^-J-A 
i^.i£. jl <jAjV1 6 j-^ *4J,>*^ ^-ImAJU J^iaJl Sj^^ /^lil A^aJl l>iA 

?.LliJI Lolj . ^LUIau! ^jjj I qll-i^ ^jxol /^aII ?-L1jJ1 ,^^1^ ( .^j ^ t n\\ l^JLij^ 
( ^lLljla cjLaiu -LuiiJ ciij-ll j^ L^jj *<iJ-ii5 oLaK \ jj't^l j < t-Jj^^^l 

*_A S ^ f l r- i "»l l ^j^>^ t^>j-i <LL-oLa f-\~^\ ^jj-1 /«-a tlA^J < 4_sVjJl 

.(o^)^,^^C^^l(^) 



o^U-HJ «S^5^ <^L1^,> ^L^ iai L^U^^ , UVUI ^^^^ ^ 

<c3f-j!^! f UI U^lj Vl^ c,,;^ ^IJ! A^^5.^j j^l^i i,j^ 
c^>^i J^> c> UJ^ U_^ <--i^Vl C.UKJI a^ ^ p^rx.^ 
^ji c^oJ! J^l J^Ai. VI ^ 2:^ dJj ^LS Uj .<^j^! I^.^i^-^ 

C->^ U; ^^^ ^JJ! ^^ ^i ^v> ^ . J^Vl ^^! 0^^ U ^Jj^ 
c^ 6^' J^ ■ VU^ J^lj ^^f s_jLi^ ^ ^ j ^t^ ^tj , JJ-^n 4_j 

UcLj U^! c^lj ^^ dif dJ jj .UDS ^ ^ 2:^11^ ^^4l^ ^ (AiVaJ! 
J <AiLj S^d^ ojc^j)) Ijf cd^l !j^ L-^l A_il4 J! Jill, ^ 

fej-a tjAa_; J^ (^^^^^ <-^jVl oSjJ i_^A3u ^U U.JJ .A_Lo (_^j ^_^1 



.SjJj^JjJIj 4_ij_(iiaitj ,_jMjiiiiiaJlj j-^ i.i^l» 4JL0 ; !j^ Jj-b j^j I -CLwJI 
^1 *^jj . o^lj JioJi dLUj W^'^j W^,^^ S.^^j uiUJi Sjij 

Laj 6J!^' a^ CjJ^.^ ^4_Ls.ll^ ^jUi..! ,_gl£ /^A^jiwiJ! ji-J) Cj^^ 



jli SjLe. Jl^5 J-^ '*-^ 'f^J:*^ J'j^*"^ Cr^'^-^J-^ j' tlh^'' 



jij^Lj Ai^-aJsJ! iS^i^j-SUo Jl^jjiU ;_^1 ^-iJjLUI Oa-IlJi j.4J^J 



is.=.Ji-o (^ Cj^jJ LaS . ^J^S Cji^-ailU ((A_lJ^llli JJ j^!» ^_^ t_^J-« 



Ul ^LJI ol^Vl l^c^jl^i^ ^) ,|J|^ ^^1^ ^1^ ^^, 
6J^ L^-^^j ol£^! ^ l^^ A^^^ ^L=H ^ ^^^ ^j ^^ 

.L^l>> ^ak.^1 ohjVi oI>.-.V| 6d^ ^ j,^ 1 ■. s 1 L I ^^j^, 
L^l \^^,^j , «4l^^| o),>^VI„ U^^.a«Ji 53,1^1 ^^^( <^UJI 

t^dJI ^Sfl . l4il^ ^ i;^ ^1^} ^^^ ^Uj) ^^^ ^3^ ^ KK-:^! 
oL^^I 0- W.^ ^j dJj^ ,.(^1 ^^ Si^ 0- ^c^ C^--=i 

cUlii^ u> ^j ,-^ t>j ' <(o«^ c^>^jj U!iU.>, o^Lj Jjjc^ 
. <5VdJI ^^^ ^ ^^ ^1 ^1 ^ 5:^1^^, ^^s/, 1^^ 



Lajj-S 5_i*^jJl Cjlj-t-a) ^ ^jLiiLiJ! jjLjjj-aJl Lo-Aj frLfiJIj pLJI Lai 

Lh lP^I 1^ (^1 oUKJl Jjl (> ji oUKJl Jjl ((ULoj LjLi), 



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*Jj^l 11a ^Ij u*^ L^^ ^j-^ u^l^ L^ c^^^*^! (^ '-sj>^' 
4j!lliJI ^j^^l 6^4^ .olj-waVl AjSjl iJjLJIj ajVoJI c_aj>=J (_yJL^' 

. ^-i ^ 3J.'"' I d l*-^"j AJVjJp <-ij^^ C;LL-a ^j-o Lg-i>^ CjUu-^ ^-> , t-^"M 

S_jjJ£. JIJl j_^j .j^yi^ i^l JU Li^ * (_>«>?^ 5^.4^j S^ cJLaJI ^_jaJ 
f-\l ■»-.,.! ^2>£ CiJV)) jii ^^^u.ill LaI . ^UaJlj ^Llli \ flj"-^ l cJLki i^^ 

Olj-ual Jjs^ J^ o"^ S^L-=> Ul^^^^l cjJ^lj Jl'iJb "-S^' Cul^ ^ 
. -^j-a'il <JjjaJ| ^Lai^ j^ U^ i \ C\A ^^JLkJI c*LJUI (_yi 5JV jJI 

^£, I j^a^ ^1 1— aja^_>^l ^^ ■•"^ \ Ij''! ^""-l (j:;j-ll fj^' ^*^jj-* j^^ *^-J-^ 

< ((L^j^UJl)> ji^jj>o<IL Ljj^^a-aJ) ^jJaaJI ^_y-iiaJI 314^1 ciJj LLjOjI 

.^jjjuijljjl (jAa \ A_i,AtrjJ La£ 

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ji LJUl^V! ISL^A:J\ 64^ J^Vj .(^^S l^_j^ ^^ ^1 SU^.-^l. 
La-o |a^jJl ^_^ .CjLS^^^ V (Ia^Uo Ljij^ual olj-coVI 6 j^ OJ£. <A_^UJI 

jj^^^ ' Cil^j^ <-sUajLj LfAj-a^ui; CiJlS! Ha ^-aj (SjLsL-aJ! olj.«sVI 



! j^ ^J^ AJ A.-a.j^l 1^ P J^ i_i^'l^-aJ! ^-iJijJ! i3i=^i ^L^S.! j--kl.° 
<aLi 4_L-oj (2)Sajj .(_^^^ — jjj ,y^ js-^ j',>^' ~~ i-^^ ^-JJ^J ^-^ 



jLjjVS >_..j ,' ''"" j <i_AjV! j^|^3_i^^J=JI a-!*jjj j^Lli^l ^j^l2j (tdljaJI 



. j(j4as.« ia^tyjj ^^^j.** C^^-^** uJu^ jO O^UoO^Aia s-LJl^ 



Up^ aJUj Slj^ oL5^ U^j^ 2JU ^! ^^i^^U ^Ulj j\j}\ 
.Cj\^^^ uiU^l ^1 Semi-vowel ^^ ^,u.J La jl 4J^L^ Lslj-uol 

u-^ t>> cdJj LJ (2hi-H 'i^j < j^Ui Uj-aLi ^jVl SUUaJI Lai 

. (yLJI I j^ (j-» \ "V • (_^ ,>^1) ((...ui^^^l r>^ j-^l 6p» 'ls-^^ 

'^'^ CS^ lH*^ O^ t> W^ --^J^jJI 6^-*:^^ <iiUJI JUJI Lol 

jl^l ^ ^ai:j ^ ^pji ^ ij!^ ^Ul ^ ^jc ^^ ^litUI j^,^:^ ^ 
(^^^oA^ L^i^l) j^^^ j^ ,_JiJ| IIa e-U. 5,1^ j^ 'o^j^\ j^ (^ #^Lj 

■ Jj^ ' (obj^ L^l) ol^^j 
^LU o-=»J^''j Jj^b ^-i:i*Jb ^>^' Jj^ ^W ^ :cil5 oLi)) 

ol^j^l 1^ \ A ( ^\\'i La A_iJLiw-s OjL^ .^\ssMai\ iJi^j^hu2sBih'2Sj^li 

j\^\ ^^..^li Lklj^l iaj^lj Ijl^l j^l ^jl dJj^ij . Uj^Lit 
Laoxj ^t ^ Ci-iAjl LJ L^l Ja5 ^ -^Ij^^b j'>^* cP i^j'^' 
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l^Jla-iAkj U^ *L^[ , olj-^Vi & 3^ J;jijs3 ^i ojl^tj (^UAJIj ;^UiiJI 



Cj.3h-^ ^^ f-^j ■ ^^^^^ i^ ^"^j ^j t> ^j^^j^ L-^ Jl ^j3^ ^b 



.j^4^[ A_jl^tLJ! ^^jXi (j-is-Vfj 
(ciij-A^i) i^jj-^ ^j^iJl ^J^ ^^.™&_^ ^_a_sjVI olj^-'-sVi s j^^j 






^^ Jb ■ LJi-^^ O^^^l 



jU^! ojL^ aV^X^ X>5» : Ji"^' LT-^ J^ = ^-ij^^ ^-^^^ JUcp 

. ((uJjj^l ^j-a ^[ dli^tj ^LJJl i> ^^"^^ '^l^^ i^^U. U 
,\3\ JUJJ.\JX& ^j . ((^Ikiij *^UJIj j'uiJij jL^U UaL^I 



* (jUJJl ^ ^_^Vl di^l ^jU U j^j < jU^yi 2-i^j tljfa-J! 

oi,>^XJ 4,,**«ji ^Vi ^ 4ji.,iji 4^L^i i,iA ^,bf ^^ji u^ , u^i^ 

oj^Vl L4.j_L£ 3±kl ^pj( L^l j Ol^jV) o)j-^V| a 1^ Jl SjU^I 
^^) ^ JaJJ! ^> j^Lj) ,^JA=J\ ^IU. ^a Ji iXa 6' j-A^j ■ Ujij^j 



C^ •^■^'>: -r-^-^.^ < bLxulj IJuli^ ^11^. ^^H 1^ ^-^Ji iS^^ c5jJ>^' ch' 
J^\ olj . 5>^l A.-Jl 6J4^ ^ or^' oI^VI a5l> J^ 'Olk^ 
^^1 jjU dJj ^j . ^I^t 6lA j!_>il 3^ ^a^ C5^' U:H^' ^^A^^l 

^L^ U ^ . 3W^>I ol>^l J:^^ C^\^\ c> C5>^l -i5l> f^^ 

. j^^i a^u^ ^.j^-^-ii u' ^--^ ' c^-^^"^' "^^ 3U^)^b 

U J^ ^^.^JllJIj)) : <^^^^ J^ ^ J t>j ■ ^j'^' U^l ol^^VI 
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Lft^ U^-lkj ^^ t-iKxll ^_^| J;H^^ JLa^ ij-^^ *^ («.^)^ j^) cj^j^^V! 
, Lj^^ J^LalJlj L^ljjj j__s S^~>.Ur(.y Jj-ljj (2_aJJI jjtiji (\^ ui!__^-iJjVI 

s 

. ^^laJ! jj^ ^^j1^ (5*^ ^J^io^ Jiaj LaJaj O'J-JLj uJLiJl Cj^^j-^ ?lJlj( 

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'^ JIJ^ * JS.Ijlit Jl SjjJJ c^'J^ (5^' cr'J^^^ ^L3a^ AJ^rsO^j 



1 J ■ ^ i Ji X«J.«=!^ (^LaJlj /jAaJlj ;»3L5Jlj <j31j-J! CliSjJ-*^^' tX&j 

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. (ftji flj-iSjl , _j£. 



jLiLVI o!^>^V 4_i.«iJLi ^Ij \l^j . ol^^^Vl 6a^ Jklli jl£. ^L^lli 

tjAxJij ^uu a^^^L djj^j (pUijij ^uji^ jUjij jUJi) i^j^\ 

■ **-^Llj Jxu. La j^ ( Saj^l ijLii^^j ^jji^ij 1 n ^j-^ o" Tif fiLkJIj 
;>AkJI o.>x^l ^iu^^ Oi ^ (>j < UJ^ JaIu^ J^ j^^ Ja"„.A JJ« 

djj f^j . JaX^ ^Ako O^^x-a jL^I !illo JLLJ -1 -f]j"'< A ,_.-o.^l l^. 

. «e^5A*i^V)^3Uj3XM-il-^'ij-3j^ti *'.>:j^L^j SjU.jj ^j^=^ cSj^S 

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J^ t_yls-JI loA ^j . l^^k: ^ ^j^\ Lk^! ^_yl*j U^L? ' MUJ 

^-^^^ W^ UJ^ U^J j^OauJ V OaSj !it^ . (4'MtA oLil_u« (^ 4^1) 

' "^JJ LiJ ^ all -^ ^j 



SuoKJI SLiii ^ j4^ ^-h-* c5->^' c>^'^ fr^iUiujVI cjIj^^Vj 

;.UJ!j jLaJIj jU^! : SLjLi^i iij^ 5JUVI L^jLLaj ^1 ^j^Li 
^Vtj ajVl Ja5 I4I0 ^^ (jl^ Ijl <^UJlj UUJIj tjAiJIj ^LUJij 
L^[ . ^Uij (>U-ij ^-a2U= Ji:L^ ^U^ ^U jiiU dlJ^ dil jj « ^ 



^^ jiVl alt jjl^ j-*l SjjU^Lj ol^c^VI ^^ ^Uib ->^^' Sj^Llij 



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=^^lj ^ijJl ^'l^I ^S^l \x& ^ ^i-j ^ . iCx-fx^ ^^Jx> ^.^^^ \j^__j 

"^l^-^H J*-^^*^^ ^j^>^» : Jjlii.(W\ JjLJj),_i^U ^^Ai^ 



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k^lj^ t>H^' 6^ J^ Cj^J '- ^J^ '^^ i^J^h L^ H^ '^^J^ 

JA^ A^Ul^ oijU^i ^'j^' LT^ '^^'-^ CJ^ '^-^ • ^>^ ^J^^^J ^^^^J^ 

^\jl\j .' li-iijltj L^A^l^ oj^^i io^ ^Ul i_-i oL=^4JJ' L^^i*^ ci!jll^! 



L>-^ 



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j^^jjji ( ^j^ 6^^^^^ LjL-ftj)j ^UJ! ^ jj^ is^^ 3 j^ J^ V^ 



(jr^ tj^j'^l (l>-a oLalll JJ^ '--a^ 



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' uj^j^ J^ ' #^^iUiM.J c;j^ filjJt jxj ^ Vlj < <aL^I 6^>«^ ; j..^ | 

■ ^^ fH^ J^lj jLL! ^jfiJLJ) t^jAjU (_yjjj 

I jl p.\jl\ J5^ I^L5 . ^\J\ Ja5^ :^>S 5UU <JU H-A*^ j^-Jj 
*,A^ *^ *^ J^ ' ^^y*^, 3j^^^ O^Lu, jAj iiJLi^) ^ 4_iSL« o^U. 
cJL^ dl:S Cj\^ ^Li , *.y*iu.l o.>c^ J.LJI ^UJI ^^ VI L^ 

c> ^\J\ oVU (S ^-U J.LuJj) ^.L^U ^^Ai^ ,_^ jj^ 



, U.AXJ #^!lUl^l ^^^ >^j^j^ ^^J L>-^S^J ai-^jl.^j ' S>^1 

^ \y..,\ IajA=^ 12LX^ t> ^\J\ 3^ t> '^^ u' - 3^-- J^ L^ ^^'J' 
JkUl (> Sj^-^l ftXa . ^^-iiij U ji tl^AiJI cjj^ «^4^ Lj^lli^l U,^.^ 

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. llia.^1 (^j^t) ol^V! ^ ^ , 3^J^\ ^M ^ Jc^Vl 
iiAJ ^ (3:ji>U!j ^..^iJaJ) ^ c,VU I4J u' ori^ 'j^( tA,H^ ^^:^j 

Ji - d^ AiJI ^1 - <aJ! ^^^ :^^ ^ U£ , l^jU ^i A^d^l s^.<\\ 

pUiJi ^ (_>^^i~^iu , i^jU s^ ^>^Vi jLUi ^ i^^ij . ^1 

. Jii V ^ < J^L^ . 1%^ Ji^ < (pU^ij ^UJIj jL-iJ!j jUJI) JUkVI 
^UJt jU=V( vJ^ ^LSl (.1^ ^ f:^^itUI 11a ^) Uyl Lljl, ^j 

, «^U j\ ^jil^ JUJ=1 ^^^ da_j 4^1 < Cj^j e^j JX-^j 



j-v ^ ^^ji^iijt ..^^ ju^ ^LuVi j^_^^ {u^ ^j^j ^ ^j\ ^) . ^u jiji j_^ ,r.u*£„ {V 






oL^^l 6la S^jA..-:^ Ciil^I plj- ' l^^J^\j b^y^\j 2^-1^1 . oL^^! 

A .-.^.L. 2.^1^ ^ < JM=)fl c.l>^) <:-LllL^W 'iJri^^ J^ J^ ^^ 
. (Hj^j 5^:--« A^"'^H) L_>^ ^ V^ J -^^ ^ -'^•^ 

. (aJj^j SjJr^S S,>u*Ul) tl>^j X [JJ— iaj _>^ X ^>:r-^ 

. (^^^J Sj-u^ 4.4^!) Sjjxuj X Ijj^j f J X ^^^.^ 

u^ij s_>.«iiij bu^ jU^i oi^^>^ 2^-iiL} s^LkJi 6:u ^^ 






ojd^ ,i^ ^ LAjj^j U,^a..-=^ ol^^l ^U ^_^ JJ=^ U L^ 

. <^ ^ ^ jJI JLwJI Jl <l1^ ^sU3 ^^ 

^ f^^-^i ^J^ J^ij)) : Uik^ ^..xiJiiJI ci.1^^1 Jl L^ ^j 

uUVI [4^ a^» jij^ . u^^i:; Ul^l L4:! cdiVj . jUi^VJ ^^^^ 

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\ z.lj' .SuL^ L^li . U^S^ Lo ._Mu^ J^ ' f^^-^ ^J Ai^J^- u-L-=.^ 
Uj^>A.^ 6' Jl M^ t^ UJUJI c> f^' o-^ '^-^ ^ ^^i^' 

. ^UkJI ^j^ ^ f.:H-^l ^j^ J:^^J'> :J^ •'^ L^jU^j ^^' 

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6^UJi ^> ji^jj 5^^ u ^ ^^ 4^,^ ^^ ^ ^^ UxJ jL uk: 

. ^!iU a^^^iaU) a_c^UI U^) ^^^ ^^^ 

f-^^i2» ^ak.-=^ ^.i^^-^ ^1 < oi jju j^i ^:ii^ ^ ui jA^ 

. <(^L^^ ^^ ^Vi uuuj ^Vi <^Li^ (u) ::iU^ o^ ^ 
u ^ 2^^i ^uaL ^uyi 2^ ^:iU:^vi ^..^-.-ii ^V , c(.^Vi 

. 5JUJI 4 jji ^ ^^.^..Aaj ^^a£ U^ «u^Vi ^u^), j! 



^ U^ ^l ^j» :J>Sj e.,i^ <^>^ii^ll31 ^l c> ^!^ -i^ cr^ 
. «^!^^U 6^>^b Sj^:>ib S,>i^i !>H^ !:u> ^j .. jt^b -iJ^^i 

. <(^UJI li>^ (^yO OjU^j ' oUj'^1 ^..x^ ^ cu^ ^ j^ 

dJ j ^ \hhU. . 3U^i Ji W^^j W^:i^^ cr^j- ^b W^'^ ^>* 
^jUJ) oUiJb (jf^^' (> ^GjJ' c^b J-* '^J .c>L£>J1^L- o^ 



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. M-^- ^ . 3L^'LiJl ^J!iKi^ oUU! J^ .^ vowels ^l<^^ 

a- ^:^i^b j>^ ^^ oij^V) ji^l cdJ J J! ULJ^yU ^j . W 

AiL^VL. llA .(^j^O 2J^L^I olj^VU ^lAi. ^^1 ^^-^ 

^ c^:^) ^Vi < ui^i ^LiiJi ,^ j'--^! ^^^' -*-^^ -'-^ L^l 

: jJziL-ai ^ ^^«iJI lla f-^ oij 



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1^ JLs^tj (^O^i 43^ 



Jlkj j5j < Ull! o!j-^V ^LU! ,sj-^l ^ vowels cdI^^! 
JjVl >^-«n J^Uo ^ «^Lu^l c;l>^Vl ji c^lju-J))) ULi=^i 14^ 

. consonants 4JLsL^l oi^^^^V! ^j 

. tdi) j! SjlU! a 1a A_iij ^ L^L^jj l^-^^l^j L^UL L^ JUj 
. ^>JClJIj jjt~-tt ^U cd1,>^V| ^I ci;K>JI (ji lis. Ji ^.s-^i 

A t > r,. ^ j \ ^ )i_A«ii aJ) JiS La IJt^ La ^jLS ^ Laji ^jx-i^ dJj J^ja.yj 



^- 



6'^*^^ af^J U-^ U^) ^ (H^J t2>:i.idjLXaJ! i^jlc j^Vl Jf-Luj ^_yi^ 

oLS^^aJLj ojj^l ^j^-aJ! o«jJ^' ^ ir'^^ ^ i^j^^-^^ *j^ 
jjdsJI ^-^j jjl jil.j-Ji 4_iLlaj j_^j ( ^^'cardinal vowels 6_jjLLJLJi 

AAA Uiaj ^_>1j i jjlr (3^1^ 4_JLl4 ^^j^ Qyui^M^ (ilLlA (j^ iJ La 



J' 



(d^-fiwAJIj Sjj-oSjIj -i^^sJLaJS) jL-iiU) CjI^^_>=JLj ^^^LalL&l 



.Ua^Uj YYo ,j^j^\{\] 



. is^il^J) L^^ cjLa%£. (^1 ( J^^i isl^ "-s.^^ ^ ^^j tl)f^ ' Jj*^' 
g^ ^j^Vl U ob'^icVlj v'-^)?l jiij t-"j . pu^l ubUi S^iji ^ 

^j£. liU j j^ !j-ala_a < S^_>A...*=^i oL^jJ^ 15-^^-^' 3j^b 'r^l^?^ *^^^^=^ 

. S-a-tAJIj Sj-Lo^lj AjaJLaJi I A_SjjA-aJl 

JaaIj < ^jU (^>i"l &jU-> ; f»-^J ' J^l-^H ^_5-iLll! j^-jiJl t^l-^ ^ 

^Vl LD oj^^i cjUiiUJi diJj J^^i i=liij jdiiu.) . ^s^^Lc j^j j^^ 






^^aIaA-aJ 



Jl Lh-LJI ^jUoJI ai . (^j^b Sjj-^^H) oL^^I ^ ofWUI 

. duration JjUlj j.VijII : 2_i^l ^ 

(_yjLjj . Jj-LaJI 6j^ Lac L^ J /^ . A ^ j_5i ^.>=»^ V cjljLiJLj di j ^y; j-^*^j 

aJ-A ^2>^^^Aa-jj <i (; H i lj-t^j A_ljjjlJ( j^Ij_5J ((^-jjjMi'fl " II CjIj-^J-aJ))) 
^^j' '^bU^ (^' ^JJ^J CjLS^j^I i^aj <^J>^! li^jli.) Sj^iLaJI 

*jl^b ^LJtj ^Vl j_5^j -tlh^^b ^' "-^JJ^ U^La_il ol^^sJl tjl ^J)) 

(jX. -tLiJdsfc. air, ^ULo (J;jAi».VLi ... (j-JI cJj^^^j j l .^aj l ^-,A*Cj-vil ^j_u 
La. jj^Lulb ( I4J JjliujJ C*a-<-aj CjLo^li: u-Sjj-^1lj :(J^ oLa^UJI 
' j'j U.i^' Jt^^ ^J-Ax-a-aUj <i^ ^jiLu (jjjIUilj) JiiAlUj , L^>a J*e-TJ 
oJ J j2>-* ^t_y^ U'-^ o}-^ ' ^J^ QA-ia^ ^jlJLallj i A29sJi ^ Jajk jjj-u^-oJUj 



- iYT - 



I4JV tdJ jj co-Aw Laj[ (jL^^l) cjL^^^Ls .LAjldi^[ djl-j-Li^j \ (i"^jjt^ 

\jx..^ (jl^ ob - '^^J ■ '^^^J ^->^' ^->^ (cjAt- 6^^ J^ *-^) 
^__^! 3^ iJ-S^ Ja-kJLi 4^^jiJI j[ ! J,>^' a-« ^^ ^ ~ La-t-ibljl-o 

j.l£. *jLfl. jl (3-^L-^ uj J ' -clU U" mij ^lj_^l jljJL-ftl ^J^ SjL_ii.| dJ j-j 

j^^ [3-i-lalj La (j| S till J ^ J>^l i>J^ ^-*^ * L>:J-W^' U:H ^^i^b 



<_i,ajAij jJx. A^ti-a-v 1^ \j^jj jllj . La-a J-Ji i-ijj-Si.j CjlS^^^^I ^j^!^_^ 

^! cjIjo-oVI dii ^Lj tin* t^j^b ^^j' cr^"-*^ _>^^ W-' '-^j>=^' 



(O^iLiJI ol^j^i (_yJx. Li-cul J I 1^ ') 1 — sonority j_g_a_a_iuJi^LlJi Sj_i 
JklJI jlt JjLc ^jjj frl^l jj^ ^^^ j^ d^! eJj^^^ ^ l^ljii^V 

* f4^^*^ Cy ^^^b Jj^ C^*^' ^j-* ^jj' -^J • <I1a^ (_-i ;jAa_JI j__lr. 
^J>>=^J ol^^>aJI) (j jljjfll l dl^^l^l (j£. ^j^jj 4^1^^^^ J^ jA£. i±ij-N 

^IjJiJUul Ijj-i^ j_g-aljJJi J^itujIjJ! 4 U -^ ^ji ,^ a^jJI ^ \ rj 

oLSj^lJ J-JI i_fljj_=». j^^_i_£ (a_j j) .f^ol l j)j aoLjj >^aJI)> ^ \ t> .^^W 

^JJ-i^ idJj (2>£- [^-IJ^ l-O^ < (^ Orrnllj S^>.«4^!j ^.a-lflJ)) jL-^SiAII CjI^J^) 

. CJJjiJI i^jj-ajl (^__;jJ! SJ^Ij ( <LAjLuJI <i_jjLi£. j_S j-_jljLkJS &JJ^ L* 

consonants ^lli.^ JU LiaJLc \ ^jljjUio Lo-ls aJIaIJI ^^Jj^^VlujlSj^f 



^ AjJii! (^,>*^' oljjJI o' '-sjjJ<-^b o*^' ^-^^ j>S-^' jjLuJI (-i^i 
5 ^.aUj) 5j ,..<; \\j 4 ^ " '^ II ^_5J-£ «oi-^^!)) ^I j -^ " . ^1 J .^^ J Aj_^i^^ 
V lla 6^j . (JI>J! ol^^O ^1 -^j^ 6j^ GU-^I ol^^O 
; L^i IJI ^jj^ ^ (ol^^O ^It^.^^H lla 3^1 ^-^^-^ c/^ 

._w^\l lj ^cJiUI ^^I'qILs . t5>i.l CJ^ jl #^Lax«l SJaj ^1^ (^ CJ:J^=^ 

a.^b t^j^^ ^^AxJJb ^'^^-^^b ^^b ^b ^y^^ Sj^-^b * ^ j"^''^ b 

.tf:.- — 5 t'a ^.^l l LaJUIj ^_^ pal'-^l /,b ~ CjI ^ 1U..^a]l al^j . <A^^b 

1 ^\^ a4JLj j5 Laj cj^j^IJIj f^^-^^*^^ ?.Lal=^VI Ijjfc ijl Uii£: csUb 

^ U^ (3jj ^ CM^i^l Laj ' <^I-hJ' 'J^ (^ W^j^j ^-^>^' (^^ 
jjju^ j-A La£ - y I^^Vb ■ v''^^)^' oLaU-d L4-ij-^ j-Aj cijlj-^Vl 



s-LJIj ^Vl) j^l ^jj^j (^jj^l) 4X«L^I oS,>^Vi ^ ">j^'.-^ Lu 

6lA J^ ^jJ\ ^ 3^^! - U^ ^ - J^Vl ^LSj . ^jj^\ 6 jj> 
L44L1 c^U ^1 JjVi oLUJI ^ jl (jL.^1 ol^>Ji) t>LoVj 

La - Lij-i^ ^ Lg-a^l (^j^kl LLi^l -U tjl jJ-i:J (jLus^l) ol:^j-::Jlj 

cs-^ l^^^U < j~^\ Jl jLw. ^ Jo^lj j^^^ l4-^_>Aj i> ijii^V 

. OJ^Sio^ j^ dJj JS ^^ 'f-xSl^ Loj ( J j <lj *ai1 



;, (4_d.tAJIj £jj*»^!j A-sJlkJ!) jL^2^^Ci 

jU^! ^L^__^j iajj ^^ <ilalAJJ A_jiLi!! ^_jki j3-a i^jJI ^^ 



-o^i^ u^ J* JMiu-l I4J o^ (2lioL^t olj-^Vl) cJj^^ LsjU jl 

jjl)) •'i j j'j--- 6J-la1j 2ljIj^ J^^-^^I A^-dLaJ Jjij . 4_aKi) (tLli j_yj ^U-al 
jsLJl J^ Sj-oiSJIj t_fiJVl ^j-o LaJLllLs ( ({iJLitjij)) <A.^llj S,>ui^lj -i-jaJlaJI 

2^ Uli , lilJj !^^l*ij ol ^>4^ u^ • U^b bj->^ ^ Lsr^ ' W-^^^ 
(^jd2>wJI i-i^iLkVI a^^_fl-c^jj ^-^ J 1 f oL^ « ^ j K lJj J ^ 1 1 ui^iLujVI 

^ 'Lajj^\ (^.JjjJj oLs!iUJ! (j-a ;3jI t^j) ^i-l-J''^' ' oLalilaJI ^jl dJ J 
A_iiL.l l^jj . L^-J^ UiJIj ottJ-Ul jl JLa^^ i-i^j^-^ ^yS^jJaJ) L^-S-Sj^ 



Jh4^ c>jJ' c5-jl^ ^ t-L^xi; Lajjj. JLa. J! JU. jj-* JUiiVlj 

:J^^lJ Sjj*^' L^-^ jji^^ll ' J-4 ^Lxj jJ iJ : j^llJI J^LuIj j5 LIaj 

oUac M^Ja ^ ._aij jl < Ji^ ^ ^VjU^ ^j ^^1 ^-iU' 
j-iAifij ji^^IuJ-aJl ^-j'-i-^VI tjl . 1 4J..IC i^jiiiJI ^ *(j '' j^ i^"„ — ' .'J * ' ^j) 

B SB 

B e 

JLa^l tiil^l JUi-a[ . Lo^ LJ Jis V 7-^iL^^ uU-e-J "^ ^^^ ^^LkllLj 

jJI Lja (Jr-jii V i-AJj {^Jji (Jl-*jI tl)-« Sjjj j-«^l ta"^"^- ""^^ * A_a jLilJl 
^jlJi JkUalJ! ja""-lj < L^JL^ (_r^ jj-^*^^ ■^i.^S* Ij^jbj .&jjiux<JI LxIjLc 

■ .'''^ ^^ aJjJjJLa ASj^aJJ oLajLc A a1 Ut'J ^_a J" a" aiI f. j j . ^ a j ^ 'i -v > 

B B 

alA Jl jl^'JI ^ ^IjUI ^j^ijjaiJI jjUJi (^[ ^jl ^^al! ^Vl ( a.aKJI 

B 

- ITA- 



4K f^^-Uj:. Ijj.^-. oLaKJI Jj-^t ^^>iiiii S^ f4^^ y^ <^'^ (> 
J^j ((^.^)) J^Vli . (^j^O AXoL^! ol,>^Vl ^ J^UlJI ^ 

^^Aj dJ j^ tjjl3 wi^j *^'^! ^ ^ '-4^.i^*j Lg^^^J Lri*J' J^ tl?^ 
(uij^i) AXa'i-^) J^^*'^'' ul Jl ' ^J^ '"^ J^' f^ tj-^ ^-^ 

A'A ''j*^ A ^2)-^ Lj^5^ '^^i-'**^ L4JLS5 

UJUJl AJuii^l 6J4J Cj.^"-^I (oL*^ V) ljl,>ual Lfkx-a^i olS^l 
jIjXoI ^ ^! 1^! ^J>:^ ^ f ^^W ^^ Lf^ '^^' ^J =J^ 

[Ijjji Ja Li> c^iJU u^j . 6fW^ L?^^' ^'^'"^b ^-^^^' ^HJK^' 
. / jjKvll l ^ J^ I4A ^jli Jill jb^'^b ^ijUijJl JiiA^ t> W^ 



0-= ^-J-'^j ^ ^^ U-kj( \j^j i L^Ua. j_^ ^ Kn.^ll ,-^,j5> IjSUj 

._.^LU! ^U:uV! jU^l ol^^l J) 1^4^^^ ^ 6^^i ^i^ a' 

. aUhI! 11a Jj^m" 
X ("a^( i^j>>) Ji_^( GlSj^l 

^! cjUxJIj ,_>^I^I dij J-a^^ UJI jj,^ L^^^^ ^:iKJI 4_U^ 

. t-i^^Li. ^ (_Lilt.£alll life jjjLa^ '-^J ' Xj _i.^a OIS^ls* 

I U^ ^ dJj ^^j . (jL^UI cjI^^I) S_4xAJb 5,>."^b 



tjAA-ijjU 



Lfl^U^ ^^l^ <^j ^^ LfJLa J-aUJLlb 1-4^^ J4-«iJ f-^ tl)-sj <2^J1JI 



A^j.*^ A_Li_ajJt 2_i_lJ) ^ l-f-^jJ 6^ [<;-p^ (Lj^b LS-^ '^H^-^^ JV 



dJJ ol^ oij . Jji !ilj < j^^l ^ jl-<^lj uj^3 1^ ^tjJ! ^{^ dJJ ^_^ 
(jl^lj ^LJ!) c^^IaJ! o^LgJ ^.^i^^LUi dJi^Vi J^l"--^^! ^jU-AJ ^^^ 

. S'ol"-^ ->ii ^^ix^JJ a^jlfi. aj__>lA3! oijjVi <i-o^^^klAJ 



u^i u^ < j;.XM=^i J^^^j ^-^J^i ^^ (^ J^j^^' o'l^^? (> <i^i 






\ li-^ib.) 



_^^j_u*^ djjj .o^jj^LuJ) ^UllV (Jij Jj ^ Jj U^j J)) j_gi cjiia. 
ci.1^^ 2Jl^Vl a jjs ^ jl^b (^Ulj ^Vl Jjl :j/VI . C^^^j (> J^iij 

Cijj^) CVVC ^iaUl jl ( syllabic structure 2_iiJ ^-.Ls.l l ,_.X yJI 

j^ylklil frijVLi Ijjij LaJij 6_>AaJi . (__^jdji oLij)",.,^ ^^ ^j)",ma ^! ^^^ 
i™)^j^^ Jj (^^a4^3jU^ 4_ii J^ ^^jj^LJI ^LmV j!jj(j ?.LJlj ^Vl 



^^! !j-A ;--s l^^^j U^! A,^laJ JjiJ S^Sj^l a,a£ jjjS*«J!j ^JiSLuj 

j^^*^ ^ £)JjJj-0 J4la (^^1 J-**^' ' ^^^' <— iaiAJ Jj jjW^ *^ Li.!jLc 

Lu.!^j_j j_^L«jV! ^-i '■ - ^ (5jJL.iii^ i_j[ . morphophonemic analysis 

\_d \ Sjjjji. ^Liij-t.^ «■ A.t^f'* ^j-a Lf-ic ^-JaJ Loj A^j^LjujI) <LiJjj-aJI djlj j a t' ' 
. tj^*^' LT"*^' i^J-^' '^W-'' (J-^ (j-*j>^' '"^ U^-^J^ 

^LJIj u_aJVl JjLi*!^ 2^L5(_a j_^ cjUjji-ucJIj oI-uEaIJ) i^_alj ^j 



LS^ '3JJ-^ ^ ^XaaU <_iJLLs SjJjLLs Cj'p-Ij^j Jj^ •>■ J^^- Jaj LllS-a! 



^i ^1 . <^ii 2:^ 2:^j-^ c^' c^ l^ ^j_>^ '^j'j^'j ^LJ'j ^"^^ 

^-Jx. j^i^ti^ i_c"^4^ iSiXaJ) idA . L.aj_A:i. L^ SjjXo 4j_jLj A^.^.^ {(^j^I» 

f- 

LaJ>;i-AJ ajj-t-i^ ((Cj^_^-uoJ! ij^)) ^j^ -^-j-a-^ A-*-"*-*^ ~ ^,_-3^)iS (j_a ^>.§-fiJ La^ 
jJjC dJJJ^i J,^il.cli)> : 4jji ^ A_2^!jj^ LJf^W ^^^^' "-SjJ^^ l_W^^ 

c^[£ ^Ij < SJuluiJf Lfa^ jL-^ S^"q <^,>^i <::iJl^ !jli . <Ll La ^>^ 

- in - 



: cjjj-^II (_>uj^I ^ ^^ ^^~\ 

ij^jw (^^ t i^^*^! SJUi. j^ JaI! jLiA-a J-^ LIa J-all jL^A-aj .(<JjLaJl 

5_a.>AJ!j S^>.-Ulj (u^Vl ^) A^=JliJ! : i^U^ 5:^^^.=^ l^y^\ ^j^i 
L&^lii La <^.^>^j tjU^Lw Ui4jV ( Jjij jljj 2^ <iLi£*jja^3 j'j 

S^^^iu^ t ^ ^; a ^-^i-l'j <-a^ W-U^ j'>>^' CuL^ ^^\jyy '■ UAj! J^^Ijj . ((La^Ji-a 

p t ^ ^ ^ , f 

i_aJVl^ u^J^ La^V ... u_iJVLj <^\ JV'j^ Li4^V * ^li.j)U .is-jl^^ 
(i^ijM {^ I j| 1-JJVfj j'>i'j fiLJ)» : (jjJ^^ o^-v i j-a t^jj^ L^=ij^^ 



OJyi^l (JIjr.r^'l ^JU^JJl j_a ^Lili^ (ULsJi 6J-a jg^ jljJIj ^"-iH'j 

i_2i_Lfij a iiaJ I ' A(} ' ■■■ i-jJi J TtiS da-i /i-iJ-iS Ltu LjjlS q g I LIS \jaj ' j ' J I fl-J '^ P- Lj-1 1 /j I 

A— '* ^_fl j'jJl *** ^ '' ^ ^ i3'*='^ ^W-" *^ .■)."'!.''. iLj LLa <-ij iji« *jj^ "-^J ■ lL?-^ 

f-LJjj ^'J-LJ lJ^-SJ J^' ?-^^ (c-^ ^ '*<V' A_aj;jjr*i ^jl ilLl j jS^^ . «6ji jl ^]jJ)> 
aJLsJI Lai . QSj^ lj[ j^fJ {^J^ I /ij) '^'^^ *^^J'j j'^'^ A_LLal aJA 

tj[» 4J^^ . «45>5l Lul£ Ll^^_^ lj| idJjSij Lljji ^f . "H diu Lj^La. Ij[» 

T-jj^ialj . ^iLi5 Ljj^ La^ i3^J^ J^ Cr^ AJLiLill \ ^(j"^.^ J-*J Lh?-^' *^*-^J 



^ ll^ Vi .^^^ j^Vl ^!j ^ i4^j.>^ ^LUI 2JLJ) 6AJ1J 

dJ jj JIjlJ) ^ c5>?^ U,^ c^^Lu. ^j^ j\jl\j ^Ul Ja5 oI^ I jlj)) 

u^^) jj^LuJi u^^u ^ ji^ij ^uu ^'vi t:^^^ u^j 

((GiSj^L^Uui)) UfiL .±iJd^l ^>^l a«j^' cj^ uUl.-=^ . ^^^Ij 
. ^LlUl i:us ^ S^ t> j^) ^ J Uj^ L^ . semi - vowels 

- irv- 



: <^VI cjliLili-alU ^.A-^" A_Li^f AJiJi 1^ jij-llj frUJij i_aJVi ^^i 
(_^1j^ jj jaJJ j^j . ^-Slj^l JS ^_yi ;^ ^jj^ Sj^iLil) t_ij^^l — N 

. (^!^ A-aOi) <LjL ^j^ cuj^l o^j-iJ' t^ 2JLJI ajji 

. iijlS^^,^ i^tuisji Lo^Li cuj^l 






- t 



so / »J f- 

J" 



j^ Jj i (>ii^ ->Tt^ J-5^ '^-3 ■ ^ "^ "^ j aJj-j-luaII j1j-3Ij bjA^Sj ^j-^maIi 






( Jj_^!j LfJ-a j jc^il l < Lftj-o^-a 1^ vowels oL^,_>^l *Lj ^j.t.^a^ 

,^^-oic jjLij LLjIj i^ Ijjftj . consonants Aj^oL^l cjIj-l-sVI JjLIo ^^ 
oli^.^>^l) A rt.Al lj S^^LM^Ij 4 -."'^11 ^^ aJ^Ij «':i>L5!_^>ii.)) ^\L.^Ji 

^LiJlj t_aJjU A w.u\lLi Lai . ^ t" A->. rtll |j_LLujljJI JJ-* ^jjijLxJI oLaUI Ajj 

Lst . «Llial (3^ l-Jj^J Ld (Jia ^^ eJj^^^l aj^ a_ixuLujVI S_t^LaJI j^ ^I 

. I^'j LajIj ^jjJ J Its u^j.^ 
jljJJ 4. jiul iLj ^_\^.^ Ij^ ajj : J^AJ -((J^J '^^J '— *,>=»^ <La^ JJLJ 

- It* - 



J l -^ > CmujJj ^jJa ^j-=». Lj-A L-iJV! .LAj) Lkj>. ^t_li J-a-J l_l£L^ 

^2,^ A_aj^^^!^ S^^,L,.^iJi oL^^U . dj_ii t> Jiii J^ Lfj j^-A! ^^^L*«l 
ol^^lj « A^^l A^l ^ A_^UJ! L4JLi!j^j i-^Uij I4JJ IJI 

bj.^j 2^'l. aJj.j.moH S_1^UJI jI^Ij ^UJIj ^'^I (^1 '-^Jj=^ cr^ 



oLS,^ ^j , ol^j^ L^i < JU^ <^L« c^ LlA jl^lj ^Ulj uiJVf 
< c^L^^I ^ 14^^ Lpl : L^U^ oi£,>=^ 4ij,j..^o Ci^j . ILjL 

J^ ( ■^^— ) j^-^l ol^^l oU:^ ^j ^ c^j^ij ^jill 

(S^^A.^) C;l£^>:=^ ^,^A.«^ (IJI eij^^a.) ^j^l aIa ^L < tlj^LuJI 

. j:iU:.vi ^ uu! 3:^1^ ^ I4J ^ui V 

^' ^3J^J oL^j^l c^iin^l ^1 c^^llii^t J^ ^y^\ ^ ^^ ^UJ! 
J-^ "^^^J^ L^b Lc^ . *^^^j ^J-S t^^) (^j-^i-UI u-j-^l ^ 




^ 




^mj.^^) 



♦ ♦ ♦♦ 




k 



A 




- iir- 



I i^ O oj JL t^i J 



^ J^b j — °^' ^-^ tx^J '^=^ i*^' L?^ Ui^i^Ji U4IAJ SJ_jUJ! 
.Jl^! c.lS^b jL.-^l oL^^i :SJi^l 4,L^^I 0^1^ .(P^i 
^ \j^^ ce^ *^^' ^^-^ j,>4-^ W^J^' ^ W^''^ ^■^-^' ^^-^ 



- iio - 



- NA* - >o^ ^ r^) „^vi ^^^» ^u^ uj 






iaUl.1 ..Ui^ ^1^1^ ^ VI ^^ ,^|^ ^1 ^^^ ^ 3,^^ ^^, 

^ .^..^i ;^^ A^.3Ui ji .ujVi ^ s j^L 4.^u .(oJt ^^^) 

^ .^..^1 ^^ ojVIj J^ c^^^ (^^ ^^^^ 1^ ^J^ ^^ 

o-^b ^^1 cub ^^ iiU^! (U^! ^U^V!) UbuJI ^U^s/! 
^J^ c^lj «l^UI„ dO^ .^^..=^1 ^^j\ u^^i ^^^^^ ^^,^[ 

^^ ^ o^j^» 2^X^ s^^b M^j^ t>j U^i i^v ..u( 
^ L^i ,,Ai^i <.^ ,ub .u.a^ a.j ^ o:^b '^ oj^ 

^--^b JL- c^Jj 4^b 4hU ^jj^ ^^ AiLAJI UuJl ^U^V) 

^^ c^ e^-^l ^^ ^j 'o^iliiiJI ^ 14^^^^ ^ l^V ^IjJI ^ 

.U.VI ^ ^Jl ^X. ^I^b 'j^ c^j j>a. ^U^ a.J ^.U 

.« JU J jj d^b ^^^ u^^'^ ^^ .iiL^JI Uu^l 

^j^l 6dA o( ^( SUUI ,„,Aa^ ,^j^„ ;«^^a^I)) .^l^ Jbij 






^^1 4^jJ ^1 J-^ 1^1=^ Ji _>;H^ jj^-^ W^ O^J^^ OtHU^ 6W 



oLa^ ^^^ ^ (^j ^j^^ ^\S^^\) c^^l^^i dl^^iiLl^ 

V A^ ,|^j ^^^ ji^j ^^^ ^L.^1 ^ ,_^,_j ^^^_^j ^^^j 

t-^j Ji; :iu oi^^) j^ ^^^1 a^L J51UI ^uj) Jj\ u 

. Jai^) <. ^U ^aJI ^JJjJi jJ^U^j j^^LU) ^ Ji.Lj iXa^ ,i^UJ! ^ 
4 ;^4-^ ^ tas=^ ol£^l j^ ^^^1 3^b .^f-^J ^-^- U.!^ 



o!j^^}<.fij^^j .o'w^v=-u,5.b_Lji ,_fi j!ai^) - ^\j^- ^ 



oLS^I ^1 ^_^i.u^ <6^WJI ^:>^ 4^^! J^UJ i^^,;^.^ VI ^^ jIji^VJ 

c:>iij .u^ saJU^ j^ ji^- ^^^j^ Uji^i ^j^.^ 

ml: Id^ ol<:^t A^j^j ,^l^ ^^ U^ j^,^ ^^^^^ LgSU; 

eJi *^W s^^.u^b ^' ^-^t j:i-^ .UL^i ^ut.v) s^Ui ^j^ 



- UA- 



A^l^l -vt^'^ 1 ^ ^ . >:^" a_. , prosodic feature A-j^j^^Jsj Sj^U^ ^-^' lt^^**^ 

4_iikj g J J - ^ > A^^^l i^ljl 3^l^j idajjl liA Oi-I^^ Liij (Llkj ajljlj 

fijt '>-Q oLSj^Sfc CulS jJ LaS jj...^!!tj J-aJI i_S^^^ ji--^SA.ft t(_)i.i S» i t OJii_J 
jUj ^--^"qI OJ^ 'J>^J-1'^^J *^' ^^ 6-* ^' (^>?^ -LlJ^ {_5i La^ 
t^JjJtolUlJU diJj *-a L^Jl^j (J-aJt c-Sj^^^ jj.^^" A^l^ "^jSU'tll (LLiIuJI 

aJ ^ j< >U,"... t ^iti <A^Jji ^]j-a ^"^l klj-fijtj .A-iAlr^.l! Ca^LAJ (Cjl^jj.«a VI 
IjLaj < ((Cjia=k.I)> tlJj-5 j-J f-LiJI Oj.4-a j^ ^lla Jj-iJ IjLo .IjjJJiJi jl I i f^ . „Lurs 
JUaJI j^ |jLu*JLi "(.j-^ \'\\ L^L^I (('ijjij 0*-ajl» ^J^ (^ <^ 'Jj^ 

f.[2l\ Sj^ !jU .A-wJLi ^_*A^L j_pLU) JLUl j_^ jLf^V! L^L-alj <JjVl 
pUJl ^L^l La o Jl *^I3 J \sj^ J^ V S JUI ^1 J^I ^LUIj ^UJI ^1 J^l 

.(3^-J-«Ail ^_^LIj L^L-al ^J>jjlaJ w-aJU V[ J-A ^j[ dhnL^Jl ^^ 

jl t^ar.ijjJI o-jj/'i^l u^^ij-JI o^i^-^='-H Ji-S-J' tjjl l_iJj-iX^I 

/<) jJi L«i .J a il >-^J va-J '— ' ^ ^ J "^ ^ ^ ^4J^J-^^J <LlL-a2) S^^^ ^2jJ,a4^^1aJ ! 



.ci.!^^V) (>^>^ ^j'u^ dJj ^ l^U. .JUJi oLi^ ^ U-i\^ ab 

.'u^ (j\:^ij c^ij juij ^uji£ 

jli .oL^^lj uijj^UJ l^jl}\j <A^Vj S_>1^ ^ ^^1 .Ua.^ 

^f ^b CiT^ ^^^\-i (jl^V! aJjU^j Ja^UUU L^L U^L^ii 
^u^ cs^ vW» u^^ c^=-:J 'iOJ ^ ^^ ^1 JjIj .o^^Vi Uil^ ^ 

0:J^,>^ J^ 6:H 6' ^^ .O^ a^ja^l t>i l^j.,^i5^j ,A^:^liJ!j A^^Wj 

..il^j ^U ^i dJa^j .sU^Jj sL^jji^ 5:1^1 ^-^1^=^^^ ^^.^j^^, 
<.^-i ^S^:ii^ c^ L^ 6^ .^ijlt Gj^is dJdJ U^ .U^ c^^f 



i.=aiJ! t:>A^ ^! 2^JiiJ! (r) (^UV! OJ! J^) -^j^\j S^^iiJI 6;H 

CjL^^aJl ijlaj f^Mliwl ^_j-Aj (Sj_>^ S_liia. <^ljj| ^J^ C5.>^' uJij^uLiJI 
j..j^H ^1 JjVt .. u^(] "^J LS"^ La-Ajjiu^" (j^-^J'^ 'j-«^ A-ii^l A_iAjij Lii«-a 

| Q t . A I , ei,^\ ■^ lA fl_4 jj_j fl a '.A Ljiil^ ' ''■ -^ o*^ t^' <*-"^'-^ La-i^a j^jmjJ^ 

^_^ ij\ w.f-N li ^ L_^uJ IIaj .cj^ -^q 111 tj-a ^ -N ; ; 1 .' t__>-fflL=>.Sa^iJJi ol^j^l 
^LsiJ " j.^H ^Uilli ^^ jj.r^flrt llUi. ^3[ j[ (S^ijjJi ala ^ (3^VI 

- io^ - 



.Sa^ LT^ ^^^4^ J^ 
J'j *-^ "^J-f^J cf^ (Ih' f^^ '^3e'^l 'j^ ^-^-^ o-^> ^j 

- - - t * - 

. JU ^ jJI uUV 4_LLu A^oi dll^ J ^jilk^ c.^ ,ULj| ^.l-^^ii 
;^j .I43IJ dJ! ^jj^ ^Lu Ui! .dJj ^ ^^ dU^ a-:J ol 5^ 

^Ull !d^ Uj£ J ^! 4_li^Vi ^,,Ax. ^ ^ ^1 U^ dll^j 
^1 ^Ai^ ^ J;}JalU ^li 2-aKJL; J^i^! .^V^ ^ JJ.^-li 

({^U)> 4_-J£_j d^^^lJj ^_^J^ ^1 Ja_iAJ dJ j ^^j . ^^j^ ati l ^ ^^ 

J Lilii ^^ .(^^ji.^, ^ofi ^1 4JL.VI ^ JJ^iiJJ (Uo^l j^Lj) 



- ior ~ 



* . - - ■ « - *■ 

JjJjlil ((^yiwJLj) ((_>J-w)) A_fiL!SLj AJaIaj |-^ I ..r^jl -LlkJl \XSi Jija^^j 

\^y^ A_aiu^l ^L-a-tAiJ (p-'j-J' .J^^J i_sLij! aj-Aj) ((^^iJ-aJLj)) ^LLiljaJj 

r-^L^ oS^Li JliaJi \Xm t^\ ^[ <jl_«i. VLi ! j^ .LJs^! Ij^oi ?^U«lui^ j^c 
LfK SlaJLjJ! iJiaVI M^^^j (s^^>j-c-aHi a£j^I) ^L,a^Lj ^L=^ JLUI ! j^i 

i g SU\ a J J 9 " ' I ft (A->.1 Cjl^j-aJl ^2)1 (s-^J .6J^ U-*J ^J-i-3 tj-o (jj^ ^^ l 

cj^ (aoAJIj j^^^j «JLfiJt) ^j^-^^^i cjL^>=w1! allophones j) variants 

cj-ui^j ((3^^^ ^-^J Prosodic Features <jjjj^^ j^\jl^ j^iJ:Ji\ i J-4 ^_^ 

. <-JVa s^ L4J units or phonemes <miL«-a oLaAJji jl ci)!a::i.j 

- lor- 



'^ '^"""^ C^^J^ J^^ (^1 i^^Jj V ^_yiUu. ^^^ ^j .^^iaJUl ^ ^>AillJ 
<iiix*w ^l^,>^ M*-^l 2^iikiJ! j,^^l 6^ ^_^ ^1 jLiIi:lj 

(.lAJt ^ ^j^\ ,_u**s^ LU-j! jf LJU ^,A-%- 4^Uu. o)^^^ j^^ . 
•^^hi-" 6' MU-- ^',^T^^ ^'.^^i^l iiA J JJjj .LJIU ^--jj.^li 

.dhj\ S^ALkJI 6d^ l4_ii ^j^ ^) Iji ^j J^ UiUJ! jf x^j U ,1 1 

^ ^ ^ 

3^=^' LS-^_hJ^^ 2^-^^^ ^ U^J .5J:=.Ij <5^_^ cJ(j,U (<-L^I 2-^tol l) 

^'.h^AlJ! aU <uuij j^ )Uj ^Jj\ 11a 1^!^ .cjIj^ t> ^1 ^1 
.AiHx^ cjL^,^ jaj ^.^.JJIj S^^^^Ij 4^-MI ^_.j-^- ^} 3LajU«JJ 

a-=^ u' '^'.>-' (^ ^'i^b f:!'^' '^'^I ^i^^ t> LiJ jj^jj 
j^l UJl UUi ,6iA ^UVI 6^Ly l^^U ^j ^^ 1^^ j5 (Ihj-jlaJS 

- lot - 



S_>iu^lj ^ vVsll {^[Su tdlj j^ L^LL '^ ta"...^ ^_>^ ^LsV) j2)' 'j^ 

j^^jj-is J_^ ^-iAkaJ 5^,^^-1-1^ ^^y^—a L^} J! ( JLa^ (iiJjS j-aZi (..J^^Jjl -^^ A,t*aJ!^ 
Cl»-t*iJJ^ *Si-^ f*-^ iS'^^ u"j"^ 3W-^' LajJ::^-) /A -vIqIIj j^j . all ;3iaJ 

^ •>."^J| jl) ■ alVI >-.a t... )jt jjJ3»J V AJLo Vi ^j! if ij'^'' 
i-sLUtj (^UaJIj pLkJtj jLAJIj jL-£aJi (^J -^-^ ^---H ?-!jbLLuVl Cj\^i^\ 

a1 Ui'tli j--fl ^>iiiJl J^i LT^ W-:i-^l ,>i=^' LS^~^ f-^ U-^J <S_t,<aLi. ^<-^^ 

.CiJjsJ! t5J^' a«j^' cr^ J>J^,>:i^ ^-fj^ >*J i^^jl^l oLj_^1uj-o 

- ioo - 



C^^ ' ^^ ^' t3^ ^j^ Ij^ Li1a£ ^ Lui, LX]j .Ukjl :^^ Ijl uij^>^ 
4ijA^ a^auj oU^ ^ U^^l^^V .bLu*^i>u:ui^Usjt ^ <(ol^^!)) 

^j ^j .vowels (ajI^U^I c^Ij^Vi jI) oL^^Ij consonants AJ^U=JI 

. value and function SjLiii^lj LaaU! ^ Uj J^ U^Ii.! ^iiliJ 

^-u*ta^ 6' cj^ (l5^' "^ (liAJi^lj 2_aAUI 2^lj,) <jjljJI &1& ^ 

'U ^^j .phonatically nothing f-^^ Lik: ^j<-|l ^j! .^j^ yjSli^i 



- io\ 



(ajljj 6.Uj dJl ^1) Ji>Jl ol^^l 6> jW^W :(^-r-) j^--^' 

^Kr... I I JIaj (GV <JaaJJ IjLuM Jklil Uli.! La^Lj .lataj L4J jIjI^I 
j-i L^jlJ^^j 1 j3"jo aI Jjjlj J. d . " ,H,i <* J^a ^jJ[^l "^J (Ui-itaj Sjia. (_^ J^j 

. ^ aaJJI ?j_lxajjl 

^2)i>jJI ^ dLlaj LLa Ljjjj^j L^_A_jj_S 5_LjjjJI 5_aJJI ^_5_s 1 o 1 j 1 ^ " j 

"H A_ij-aj^l S^^>lkJI JjJ:sJlj ( jLlk^I (^j'r.irtil A_x^U^ 2_j^^itJJ) <5^^^l 



Uj, l^ljjl ^UJ! ^^) ^^ji^^Q jj^i ^yj^ ^WJL ui 

-j^lj tjLJ ^ ^^1 2_.4a^ ^jji ^LU! 
L^j^j Lg^ai ^^i cjU^I ^ J^ J^ ^^1 J3^^ 

4^,^.^ d^i 4^j^( oU4i!i ^^Vlj .J^j ^^ A^^ ^ <^^^ 
olj-^VI jj-o cjLUlIj ia^iU.) ^ L ^ fu<: - ^j_«. ^ilJLa Ls>.i^j 5_lj j^>JI 



>^ >^ " llj .((5^j_AJjJ)) A -N f<ij-i ^^~^J ^_yJjC LfjL-^j-2^ ):-lj! ^J-^ LLj^J 
<_ijj^lj Lll 5_l5__^I jLiJUaj ji>.V! JLitJ (_5-i*J "^i <Li-i^^l j. »u^^ <Ljjj-^-a^ 

^^^kiJIj u"J^W-h!^J ^-^^ LT^ t l"^"^ ^'^' J^^ *>^' LT^lcS-i^ -^ 
iLuLAJ (4_9_d J-aLa_lJI SJ^j_^_ujj aJLj_-o j_Lu_iJ L-a-Jlj «r- jLa_lJI ^^j-* ^J-rM- 

• *^J^^ (^ cs-?^^ iSJ^^ U"J^' 
^ 4-rJl5tJ) lJ>sA& j_A i^Llia-o *^H-*j S__j1Aj jLl-fs^n (^jl ^ u. a j\ Jj JraJJj 

(3LiJ 2_i!) 2LiJJI ^j! dJj .(^jJjLaJI j-Lt S^UaJI oLj-wIj a_jLcj_lu^ 

^LiJl Ij-^ (_j-S JjIjV! jIjjJI Ajll«a La Lai -JLa^ Lfjlc jLal£.V! tj^^ 

JIaj ^^ f-f-Jj.J (^ J^ t>J LT^ lh'j ^J4^*«J J:i^^' J*-^' C> 
^.^' -^ H a.„^jj.!A (--Lc (_5-l-H* <-J-^J i^fj J==t. ^^ ^Ij I J ^ I <• ■ 3La_£. 



•' ^j'^'^'^ b <ii-l^^b ^-a^jJl .t^A^ c> J^J (^-^ ^ij=^, ol^^Vl 

<:! .<d 4^j j^ V ;_^1 ^^ 6j^A^ u ^:,l J^ (^dJ) I jji ^^ Vj 
■^-H JU^V' *^-^ -i^ LA.k,4i» I J n 1 f Ul^ Jxa^ j-oVi <_L|_I^ ^ 
^ Lh^I JU ;_5_U <u.^ cJ>Ji ^ UJLiJj .^^dj.^L^ ^j_^U. 

e-**^J ^>*-=^ J) ^^..ai ^> hL^jsAi JU ^)m; .^^lI^! lis Ji^ !j-oU 
4^UJi j^l j_gi ^^^ ,<ij^ 5_i.Ak l^ljoj ^k^-^q .U^jULs^^ U^!^ , 
S^^^k^ t> 4J>I^ cJkk *J^i tla ^> cw^^ ^AJyd LflUj .^V! 1^_>M 

V^ L^J -^'^"^ L?-^ U-^L^J-^J L4J_alj_c^ <o!j_=*^Vi ujj-^j ^ 



J U ; I I ^ JjLo-IJ! j_^[^>_vJi*j ^^-IJI Ljjij.l_dVi <-d_xJI aJ-fJj -ajljj 

OjiajJI OA:^. ^j-a Cua l^H^J <j3^JJl CjIa ^ ^ J-a:^s_Aj A_l-a.ujlj! OJ-=s. (j-a 

.phonemic ((j_j_AAiji)) (^\ *^V^Ij ^LliJl ^^^i -u^i j J ,><-al£: j4^ (A-^^KU 
ji L^ (^l£j^l &1^ 4J^j (Units jl phonemes ^ W\.-<n <^j-^ o!j=^j 



. dUj jl Sjj.^1 604 ^ d.J^ ^AJI tJ^iJcJi ^j2^^\ tjU-.H 



^j ..LkJIj .Lkllj jLaJI^ jUJI ^^ . jLjLVl ol^^l ^ Ua^ 

<6:iiJlj ^LiJI^ ^UJI ^ t3:ii^(j f^^'^-li ^ J^J^\ ISU. ^ 

3kUI ._ix*o^ ^jl Li^jis .^^Vl 4_j:;.>.^l 2-sl^l (ji <i5^ 1 ;| \<K 
oJ) ^ .IhjLll A^^iiU l^iioj S^^j^ix^aU! K-'fiil j^^^ ^^ ^^iaAJi 

.^L^j S jj.^q 4^aJLaU S_Aikj jj-i-a Ciwj 



(S^^A^-^j 4lj^) U^AJIj S,>*«1!) ^ J^I^ ^..^lijl ^ ^til5 U^ 

J;.:il5 Lljjli .^^Vl olj^Vl 2-* cjUli^ Lh^j .(^UJIj ^^I^ 
.Jl^ ^!iUj jL^^ oLu-i o!^j J)^ o^j jt.^ .-Jj...< 

■^->=^ S^>^ i^*-^ (^La^I ^>iiiJI Ij^ ^jl 2ujjjJ» utS.^^1^ 

3^ of Uilol I4J ^^^laJI JkU! S^lj ^ oL^^I ^1 U^ 1 31 .ijj,^ 
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jJjVI ^-s OuAJI '■^j-^ q" jJ| '-s^U u^ «^j ^-'-^» L>^j 3j-^' <^ j^j 

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.(Ui^) A^.All Lfllaj) .JkMI 

(^ Jl^ 2:xujj jL^sj 2-^ JkiJt diji^ ^> ^^\ ^^^ ol5:^U 
.Ll^L« Lij^ U^ c*^ S^jJI A^^U t> l^j ^lju£i ^Ui tj jt 

^^j^ Ls^ ._j^-ala iJ£ ^^tUU « L4liJ=^j L^-^-^ ^-.U^lll ol^,>=^ 



(j-o dJj ^j;"^*j .1^ <Lijj^l iJjLsjJIj iJj-t-oLslJI Jjuu Vj i^ljL^^jriJJ 

("■ ^j J^"") ijSji (a-oj^Lj jjJLijji rcAi-i^jjJI 







c^liUJI i_i_uiAjjJI 5_}_jj_!JI oL$,>^l (_y-Lc AJijLLJI j_g_s Li^^^-alil - ^ 
• \s^ j-*j^^ LaLjj^^.i-2. jSj Os-t-aJlj [a] Laj-aji^j 



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oUJJI ^> f,}^\ IsJi ^^ 'Sl^ ^\ ^ik. (jj^ ^^1 S^^x^llLj 
uj^ jLIj 2_jj^I ^.^..lijl 2-a ^LJJU .4_!Lu.LiJS <jjLjlJI a^^I 



^^aJI 11a j^ Aiali j^l ^Lal Jjj^ (^-^uAJI) <aj^I <£^>iJI ^ ^jLuJJI 
A^l^^^s. 5_iJ^_^l A .-..r^ili idJj A-6J .(a) ^ij AjjLiJuJU (JiiJJI JL^ ^.LuAJ 




2LJUJ|j Ja5j1J1j •^^•^ffl"<l ^tiA^ t>a o^iliJl oL^^>^l (_pJ| Li^l Ul 



SJLaJlj [I] Los^i-aJlj [i] Lfj_d!iL£: 5_Lij_Jt Sj-tuULa .,^-l=-«', 
aJUJIj [ct] i-Ai^-LJIj [^e] Lp-a^ a^ISj-JI S^^jiJIj [i] (_yi^^l 
2JUJIj . [v] U^-i^lj [u] Lp^^U ^Oij-J! "U^lj . [a] ^_jJ=-.^l 



U^J i^^U^^S l^jJj ^L^l A_i^UI d>i::^ U-* (^) f-^J A-JjUa-J1 
S^^^u^l Lol .^-a^j-aJ) ?-J^) )l4 ^>> *^^ LT^' >=^^ j' f '^ '■^iri^ 

(^ L^ ^-kh^J IfSlj {S)^j 4jjUjuJ) Laklo ^ ^^ d_ii^_LiJ| 

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tj-o ^-JJ^J d^J-aLa! j^4^ 'Liij.aJl Lo! .<AxuILJ1 (—LwaJj 4.jij,jA-JI (\^J 



*■ / \ ^ 

^2)-o ^^>^ Ls4^ ^.Aii^iaJI S /v. All La! .(A) iii^ 2_jjLl3uJI ^ A UV> (_^-l^' 

lla ^ SJal^ j^Ji.1 jjlj (a) aJj r-o 4J_o LcUjjI ^^I L4J ^3klJI JLa. 

.(V) ^j hj\^^\ 

A a J. A . <)■>•-'' LiJ^>^ L^ASJj <.A.a,1-^. A^,^:^. (j J|_ A-aii-iaJi fLaj-^JLs 

LIiLuj! La jLiwjlj 2_i_Ll! ^^^J ^^ \ ,,t\ II Lajjjj 5j±SJ dJjj * ;3^,^^lj 

^_i£. 3^.'*- ^^J ' ^'^.^^J'j Oi-^k-Lall 4_i«il]Lj iswujJI J)Sj-aJ! j_^ L4X._jijJ 

. i3J>aj oj*^ Jij^-lli oLS__^:iJI 






Cjl^>aJl j_yJ[^>jilAJ (jl LjJjI !j| (J^J .(^j-kaj_i L^-tAa-j ^J^^S 4_jjlXa J^ 



ol^^) J,j-4j ^^j [u,a,i] 3>*JLj L4_ij) ^j^ SjU UU f>-JLj 



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, 3jdJ| ot>^( (^ >>^ :j U^^illi . phonology ((U^^>^l))j phonetics 

^^ otj:a.V! i>l^ ^ 'nt A J£.1^J i^'^^ ^■1>^ ' I 4j°l.^"l ij ('jl^'^'^^^ 

S_ij_3^l Silt) (_ji di-> M dLijU^I : t5>=^' ^j^ j' • cU^' v'>>^b 
jjL^ ^1j^V1 aJ_A e^Uij (^^^i^ cpLXlb actual material Uil^l 

- j j j a " H SjIjI J \ r - \ ti " t '. «^L^ l_L_a tj-oj . aj_i*itaiu* ^ 
, a^l Uj *i£.)) J general phonetics «^LaJ! cjIj^^VI ^» o j-^ IK.^ aIU 
Jl^j U < dJj ^j . «Lia.^>liLll)> J functional phonetics «cjIj^V1 

A^j\\ ^_^ - UjL« Uj^ La£ - W^ S_s!iUJI A.Aai:J o^^^ 

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V - ^jLl^ ^ us - ol^^c^V) ^^1]^ . as volates aJ>1. ci^^U ^ US 
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> llA^ ^ Cjj^ ,J^\ ,^lkUi .bV) jl^ ^U^VI ^:il£J! 
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s 

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^ j^^l ^- U^ L^^ , jj^l ^^^ ^ L^[ ^ ^_jj_ 
S^lj -^^ i^j J -^ j^ j^i^ ^^ ^^ jl^ U - ^j 

• «0>^' Cjj.^)) l^M ^i u j j^ ^It-.^l 

^^ 6j^Li ,jUJ| .^^..^ ^^^! j^ ^ ^^^j_^ ^^^^^ ,^ ^t 
c> fSJl ^ .a^lj^^UiU L^l ol^^l ^.A^j ,,^j „^l i%^|„ 

u-^ >iii . ^Ij ^jl 6jj^,^4J4^ a:^|^| ^^^| JJi^V jj^l Ijj, 

cl*:?^ is^j^ c.*^! I Jl ilS^ ol^^^f ^ . ,3^|j ,UJIj ^UJI JU 
^JSj . ^ j! ^ii SJJI. c^li Iji ^,^j.i^| ^ ^^ ^__^^. L^f 

^-^' C5>^ ^ U^l ii^.:^ ol£^^ ^.jiUJI jjM^I j^^ 

'«vl^» ,^ ^^j «^LL>, ^ U^L. :ill. Uj^! ^^^u .Sj>Jj 



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,_,,,^. >.>-^ . , S_ijl_s Sj!i^ ^j^ acutual speech events S^jIaaJ! •i^iklll 

p f- 5^ , 

^^jjl t>j LfA^H **-^^ ^^' Lf^ LS^J 'J4^b ->^' c^-p-' ^^^^ 

^^ilJ) o^^.^ a^->*Ti ^ 6^ • c^' ' cul^Ax -^AlJ i J[ jxj U^ J^JI 

. 4_Ula^l 4_p,>^l oUUuJJ U^j cf^^' '^^^' t^ "^-^^ "^ ^ 



L^U • tjf^' o.>^^ 3_Lu.U,Vl o-=*l^t ^o^ t>A"^j jLi^! ^> ^j^ 

i_^ jUMi ^j3j .^>^ j=». Ji LpliUi^lj cdULuJI jjxXj jjAXi d5 ^i 
^\ Jl o3^ ^!,>^! ^y*^' ^J^j-^S i^ c^ <iii^! ^ULl^I &1a 



^ Sd..!^ . ;^lj U^^ ^ ^b XLLi ;^|^ ^1^^ ^UUI ^.;,-;s. 



OJJA^ ub ' 0^^ u^ f J ^ j! phonetic unit l^^^^ Sa^j L^ 



. ^j^! ^^^O} U^jiull Lu,^l oULuJI ^ jklli ^ ji^^ 



- U' - 



Jl^xJI liA t>. ^W-?^' SoI>uaI S^ I (3.""^'* 6' ^ j.?e^ Lr"J ^ '"^'-^ 
L^Jij^ >.j^ i> l4Ji o^ Ij) i^l < 2uait3^t a-p.QJ) t> I4JI oji^ 
,^. t-^ L>^ : C^' * ^^'^ ^ Qj-^^l LiikiJI 2;_i:i.LlJI tj-o LfAJI_ o,>i^ Ij^LJi^^t 

L^Jll^jj J^Ij Oj^ ojlll ol ■ J^ C"^-^' ^J->"=^ "^"^ ->:^^-^J 

Cj\^^Cj^j. <^lii) tji .^llJij JjVi UKJi ^ ojUt Jj^j Ji ^^ 
^^jlll Ay^\ U) . olj^-al Sat V ij^ij LSj^-a " aj^! a jfj — U4I-3 J^ 

^1 J jjij -ki.^ .-^ djjj . c^^Vi t:ji^ uij^t j:^Lj oUKJi 

^ ^\^\ JjLilj 1^1 ^ - <i>i^' U^^i^lj UjI^I t> j^^' 

. «t_>Ljj i_jLj» (^ J-« La^ /olj^jJ) o-a ^J^ 

- IAS - 



Jj 



^yj\j CjjlSiS) 4^^^) Sj^^Ij! j^l^l c^^^l Jj^\c^[<. u 

V a£j1z^ oU-a I43UL ^ J.^^ l^j^l Initio! jj (jOI ^IJIj 

L4^L Lu.^ W^ ^!j ^>j^ J! L^.,.^ Ui^Vlj jl^Vl ^jji ^ 

C^J-xi^i ^Jk^^L^ ^Jk^^r^i iXsj . phoneme «^^l)) A-;.,^.a3 ^ Jij! 
. <^^ S5>* A.^ <:U^^ w^^o^l ^ (^^1 oUJ ^^ J.LL« aJj) 

• gJ"^P^eme ^^^^Q^'i Jj^jjj 4^.^^ ^ L^j ^\^ _ phonetic unit 

c^j^.^ cji^jXiSi &1&J . c.U^ variants J < allophones i^-j^.-j 

«u^Ua ^ conditioned allophones J variants <I=j^^i;^) .-,Lc.j\iJt^ 
■W^J aJj4^ [41^ l^\^y , d^UUtj a"j^U,>^L} ^yVI Ji^l 

^LJ! ^3al2^ L^iiijj jloij^Vl fj^^^ ^.j^A^ J! SjUlVI jl£ LlU 



. ^1 ... ;.l^lj oAiJIj ^UJIj lJUJI (ji JLJI ^LS.lX±: 



^ CjUSL-Llu-J 



^j^ CjI£>JI oLcj^ S^.Aj^i iJlaV! i^ ^ L^i dJj _>fkj Lo£ 

1 ULi^l *~Ij a5 free variation jaUI ^vii. jl Joj^^^iu^l ^^i. p^^^illlj 

1^) ^jj^\j a \ ,^\ \ ^ju.aJi dJj^ -U^J . LaK L^^-^ a" A_4aJ^l olj-^^VI 

uiUJij Jt^lj tf^LiJl£ Ifij^ S^ ^U^VI - oli^jJL l^j^j^\ 

dJj^ J'>a^ l I j* ^j^j . OHU) uJjjJS. 2_j_i_^l ^Lalc. LaLg^ La jl <^[ 

phones i ^"^--" c^^ ^■nj.-^-^; CJ^j ' allophones ^Ij^^^J ,^ ^Jk^S 

-iAt- 



o^ (phones) iJ^j^^ii^! ^ oLc^l ^jl j^^ ^ . ^^h^' f^j^l 
oLc^l ^ phones ^dk.-^) Jikji ^.^..-i^ jj^^ ^j - ^aS 

■ Jj4^ .j^ (j^j j^j < ^-"^i 

f-H^I oUjJOj d aj:^^ V ^jl£. ^^ jii^ <aU^. , ^vi ^;_,L1^ 



^4^^^j [9] 2-^j^UJI ^l J [dj] l.^^.,c^l ^l£ Sjj:a^ Sj,>c^ 



ujJ ' ^^^ jl c^>»-^ Jli t^H^alAJ! (^>c^i ^Lkllf jlL! ^ u"j^j 

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pij"^! fedjfe ^ A.iu,&^J ^^j-a jUwj[ ^^ ^-aJ^J ■ *^ 



J C^jaJ! ^^U'* -^ -Tfi^t* .. 



i j.Ar Laa^i 2_i,A.u4j i_4^ Lol . <U oLj::^^ jI -^-^Lj ^-LAcI (5jAVI 

- lAo - 



o^ii-U^I ^ pI^Ij jut ^ VaUj ^^ *((^Lij JL_2), ji,(^l^j 

ol^ Lu ^j . Jjlai3 V U^LAil ji Ujl>i i:jU^ , JjLx; ^| ^ 
J^ ^L^l Ul Jliu^ ^^ -^1^ ^:iUlj ^!J!^ JU) ^ ^ ^L ^) 
.allophones jl variants ^^-^u^uj . L^ A_ll^! ^1 oU^ ^ 14!^ j^l^ 

LT^ W-^-Hdi C?.^=^ i^,>^ 3tJ:H^ J*-^^ < U,^>^ ((_dJ)) J ^lU) ^"'a. 
;±,J^ (Of^L.) f ^J (u^L;) f L^ Ll^i Jjl^J . JVj 3a^ JUJ) 
6a*JI j^^j ..^a^ tJalJUl ^^o^ ^^A^l ^ iJ^jllSl J\ JV J} J M ^ l ll 

f ^J Jj'^l ^-^^' Cr^ (Sj:J^'^0 Jl^l f-H^ J^J .e^x^ uj'j-^' 









— <LsjLj_aji is4~^) "O-^*-^** J^ (s-^ Oj^* 13^^=^ L-AlAa>i «LjjLo 6jj- wa -j 

a AA 42j-* uj>ij C£j^' UJ"*°^ i3^=^J t L"^'^- -^' (1)^^' LT^ <GSJj . (<^t^ 

physiological phonetics j^j-tAxJl oIj-j-^V) ^-i-& : L_a-aj-^( < C)lj-<-aVI 
4_w!jj ^JLi-Jij Jj*^^ ' psycho - phonetics ^.mVJI oIj.*-oVI ^ La^^Uj 

f (■ o 



,^,^1 :^i .oL^>Ji Ljlllj ^_pllJij JjOJL aJjI^^oII oI^^Vi S.1-<1 
j5 <aUj . L^lki JjL^ ^JIUI ^1 ^^^ ^t ol>^Vl jl < l^:iJl 

<(,^^U» (^%j^V) ^^! LjilaJ) A_Lu^l 4_u.jjJl ^U,^j ^j 
ideal <LjLi-o olj-t-al)) ^ .j J-i.^ . jJ I J ahJLuj jij^Ji*^ dj a^ ,,.> ^ j^.s sapir 
&1a tj[» : J^ . <alU! jl^\ dl^j ^ cj\-a^ja\\ L4J ^_yl*AJ sounds 
4-^^ oLiMi J.H^>J isj^^ o«*--^)^' W^j^ ^1 AjJLlJI oI,^^V| 

^1 «UjaJI S_illl ji^ <4^J 6-a d-a-ilTL* 1Xij.f^ ^^i^lls. ^_P[ 1 .^.-0" 
j^ aJL«^I AAA ^ il^Vf Ijjb jL^-aJl A-a (_^ <G! ^->^ ^ .^t'.jQil 

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JaLsJIJ Sjintll j_ji*x«VI UJ ^JiJ ^2)' ^^-^t LS^ ^^4_>^ ot ^1 ' iSJ^^ 
. lr< ^.^\ \ AjLjSLU 2_Sj^ jJ[ J^^^^jll LaaJaJI [^jU-aJlj SJLUI t_i^jJ 

a^jiJI ^_J[ Bloomfield j^^^iiiAJI ^^^IjjjiVI ^^^^AUI ^dji^^ ,>^*^ 

(■ft ^ 1.1 

^ alj o'j^J jjLuoI L^-JI)) :' r.A J JjJ-ij .«SJ>-l-a-« ^OJjj-^ C»lj^.J J «' - ^ ' 

a^iiJlj (.jjjjiiLj aJ^ILiJ! a ^U"...^ <LiJj.'-at oLfii^ J.J^'^ ^=4^^J <Liljj-<=il 

« ft- 

. SJaI^I ^Lj^^iKJI cjIj^^V! 3W^ lt^ W^->^ o'j ^ 7" "''J u' *^j^' 






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S.iajUu'^l ^^UJl (_^^1,^^! ^ a J-Aj .A-jjlIuJIj ,>^-=J'j <-sJijVI :5_aJIi11 
.»~x^\ f^j^ jlli^ cx-'^^j <olja^jJ! (j-o L4_)jij ^jLoW tjfj A_5jLi!l 



^ AjjUJ) oLuJ) ^Jh^ J ^sJi^l (> Jl .oli^l oUJJ! ^JKUMI 

^ d!j$ ^ <^j .UjU 21^ !ilio <^^) ^ ^L£.'q-;IU .c,UUI ^.l^ 

i^ [b] ^Ul ^^ ^ ^iji£^ ^1 [^pj ^^aL^VI ^jJJI ^ SJjLi 
-^->*^' t^.>feJb hjih^y^ t^ O**^) t^ ^A-a4_* 4jjU 4_a^j ^H^^ 

LIa (>>j • W'JJ'""j oLa^jiJI ^^jki!! Si£i pi j.^-^ll j_^ ajLa^j (_s-^^' 

phonetics ((4^^*^^!)) oH *^^' V->^ W^W ^,>i^t sla ^_j-l£ -<.^ I J ^jL^ 

. ^L-sl La^-AAJ i3>^ °^ LfLd jl .phonology ((Li^jJjlkJf^j 






jjj 



■^^ c^j^l •±i^\ ^U^ ^ ^!^UJ! Jl ^j^ L^l ^j^^ f>j4^ 



The Phoneme : its Nature and Use, pp. 212-217 . <,Jh^ JUij» ^Ij US ,<^^l„ ^^j^ ^{S] 



*• ' t " '> i ) ft j_A ^--^ ^"" .Llj-a^ 4_i±a_c i_slj_4l J| C^'^i-^J ' 4_g_iLJliI-a 

^ ^2^1 ^^ j,>^j J^iij *i_ff^.>-^' v*^>^' tj^ U4i!jl:ii^l (_^[ 
(^1 j^^) ((t>» iljjj j^iJIj .2^LUt (^ ^UJIj JjVl S J< H 
^jVU .Lij^-^ (_r^^'j .^^'j LJ^^^l ^ 3j^ V (i^'Vv «(>'»J 

aJA ^>ij .til V^ J l^ J J iSJ^^ fU-iJ) ^ i-sjj-6 La4lA J$Jj <Jj^^>a 
S_=>JLaJ! ^^j JjVl 2_aKJI j_yi S^>.ui<JI ^^ J.,j^j Jl I4K 3j>JI 

Ai^jklaJI ol.>t-aVI alA JJ£. q£. UjJi ^^ Jlj S^ J^ oU;H>>^ 

J^iw ^^^1 {jJs Lajocj) oUa^^I ei^^Aii .2_li,^aJ-o Sj^^^^aj Ja-aJL 
^j (liHo ^>^' f-^^ -0:^=^' (^J^' J'-J-^' i.^i*u3^ (SJ£ a>^-= 



(f^j^' Sj^ Ija^) idi^l 11a o£.Ij j5 Zj^ Ual ^1 Lijic ^\J\j 
JsiiJ! j\ L^jLt^ jj^JI ^ ^^^^^1 ^ ^^ ^^Ji ^^^^ ^( ^^ 

■u"^' L5^^ ^^* -^ J,>^ Cijl-J^ U (^ ^l-i^>3 ^jjjiitj 4_LiLuJ !j^^ 

.consonants ^L^l ol^^^Vl oL-ro^ji ^^ 4_5j Jlj !j^ o^^ 
^^^ .Vowels (ll^L^I oi^^V)) c^L^j^i oU^^ ^ dl* ^^j 
^^ j^^ ^^^^ f^ (a.a^!j S^>*«UIj 4.^ jJi Jl) 5^1..^ q II oK^i J 

~ JJ^J LS-*J ■(— ^ ) *J>f^^' oUUaJ! Sjj.«3 j^ SJ>A^ LfJ )3j-dj 



- isr- 



jj jLi_LtJI ._a V "-^ i * S_ill4-aJl t—^jj-i-sui A_l5!j^I O La_i-j j-SJ I ^^J^ 

JU ^ JUJI cdJ J^J -OW-^' 1^ JJ^' *^ -^^^ ^^ H^ '^3^=^' 

^^ JU ^_^^u.^^ jS jl L^i iJUi ^j Ui^l oL^^l oL^^ 
.d^i <Sjj^ ^n,.," ^I idl: ji ^jl^lj *^W^U ^*^' >^J '•i^ii>j U^ 
Ulli^l Uj^^^ Jl.>^f aiJ'u^' i^ *^' ^^ ^'->^)^' '^ o^ 

• J> ^ j'^b ^^' Lf^^ C5^ J*-^' ^-^J '"^'^ >-^ ^^ 

^j^ tjV Lf^xiii Ja^V <5_aSU j^y.^, u\j 'f^*^' t> f^^J v>^' 
j_a U^ ',_yj.>*^' L^^^'j J;^^!*^ A^L^ 2_=..^Ij oU^ jl <^L>^ 

!jA ^ S J^d=^ jl^! O^ *^',>^J a jLa_jl ^ 3^:^lj iSJ^^ J^^^ 

ju^b)) <ai=l^^j (^3,lL^)/! «ojj^)) ^b^' p^jji^^\ t> ti)^ 

ft * . * 

^\ .all J<-sl ^jU^ f^J^^ C> ^J^' f-^-H ^ Jj"^' ^' «>*.3^ 

^ ,^54-iii c^->^^ f-"-^ Sj,^.^ >«V! jj! ^uuiVi iia jUi o^j 



(_yi ?djJI tjLSj -International phonetic Transcription AjJjjJI 4_.-j.^II 

^U^Vu l^j^i LU^Vl ^ ^UijVl 6Aj, ^j^j .^jl Jll a^l^ j^^ 
l^lj *-sLLJI 5_jLp Jl ^ ^Vl ^jSlj .Broad Transcription ajtu,)^! 
^U^ ^^J Narrow Transcription 5^j,^1l ^ 1 > a i Vl . cjj_a_j Uj 1 '.^1 1 

ij^^ «Jhj-?-» i_U^J .(^Jj-iJI JiaJJl ^ A_cj_Uj) SjJrlJt Lajj_^j 

U-"^^ ^ J^ ^^ J^Jl ^i:il:J ^j .6^ ^j ..^..a^ U-o^H-^ tj^i^j 

Ci4:ulj .j^j^i JiUJLJI ^jUa ^ U4-a Idfo L^Litu^j i^LikiU 
t> a JA ^^1 Ij^ ^Llj < J^L^ ^U£ ^^ Sjj)<:r;,.1l JjVl ^,^jt)-> 

The Phoneme : Its Nature and Use 
6^_>^'^1 L^ikl^l j_yi=^ .La^ljj c*a-«ijlj ^^1 Sjli cj,>iiilj 

^^ t^ j' f-1^ j-Aj .The Phonemics hoU^^I ^» aj.^ 5_jjiJJ) 
^>A j' 'o^^.jjj^^ -i^ (ol^c^VI ^Uij ^) Phonology Ua^^jIiJI 
tjAj ^:il^ -.f^-^kjL^ jii 2r^l^l t^lst^U U^^^! AJka c^^ Jij>j 

- iM - 



^^ >1 -^'fl'*i V -^ 1 ^1 < ' ^ajL^^i^s^-^^ S_j^^l^l ^ \<n\ M i l l (jjljkLj 

a.al3 ^ji S^Js. a-LuSjJl L^Li5_aJ ((Li^^jjiJI)) tj! oJjJJ <SjjL^ Jjjkjj 

.AjJJi c;!>c^l ^b-^ 2_LLi Jl A_iAkJS u'^'^b [^jLj-JI 
(^ ^L=i.Vl ur^ J^-*^ Sjliil alA .js^jaII 5j£i^ (J^aJ" 4_a^ C5>>^.' 

aJ ^ji : (^i .^_yl^ f^J^ 6' -^ir! (f^^' Jl->^ U:^) ^J^ 6^J 

. U.U£. Jj^Xa 4_iJ=sj ^Ij J^J 

.gaphemes ^^j-^^^j . jjti '^ ^^il ^'-^^iJ ^j^j-*^' j.>^^' lt^ 



' '^ utnt 



f^^L? a,>^A^ i^\^ij primary phoneme ^_^^J\ aa^^I)) >j^... jjVl 
jjLJJ g^XJ! j_A j^Uiil *_Lil*^alJI llaj «secondary Phoneme (^^LUI 
! jfj j^l jSj .«U:U3lj okLs^ 4^jj^ <^U^j *<_i^jj^Vl LU.jV! a 

Uint IaHj.^! Sj^^I ^ ^Vj^ jli c^-H->J' f^^W .^j.^a.Hj, 

. jUJ! ^ 4J>1* j^i^ o! J A^j^iJ Ua.^ jk^\ ^ Uj^ ^^ ^j 

.LAjI ..-i^jJ! |J4^ 4.A^!j 6^>*«Ulj A^^liJI dJJi^j <Ljlsi A_.oU\ SJXal 

j5 Sj-alii J£ ^ ^^IL^ Uj.^ ^V^ jli 4^>iLl!l f^^l L^I 
l^ai^J.u^ ^2)^ .<Ia^ Sj.^.-^ Sj^^I UJ^I ^JJiy; ^3^1^ jl ,(^__^l Jj 
'^ ^ (> ,>-^i:^ <^l 6J^V oVLJ! J£ ^ L^^ ,sj>^ oL^ 



segmental phonemes ((^.iu^jJi) JjVI ^jlli oLa^^ a.xam3 ^s ^ ^^^ \ ^!j 
^1 (SUprasegmenal phonemes j^llJIj t ((^j-bU^II ji 4j)j's^l» oLa^jaJI 

UJjJ^ si /e-S <Ax*jLi«I j-uisLlc. : (^\ (Aji-lJ^^ jm=>\JJl£, <LiujJJijJI CjLaAJjJuLS 

^jJl 3_i3^iia:jV! l^jsA\ jjIj — Firth oj^ (jl j^^Lj ^j^I tj-aj 
La^ <ji..! tjjj .-iU-a 5Li,a^l j! LiL-^Lj s^L^I <ji J| <^jlU (^LliJI 

jllj l^Ji-a ^\ ^ULj .|^!illi! Uud^ ^ LjsjjJj l4l^ii UJ - ujJj^ 

L4J (SljjjLj CjLa^j-S (jj>i.^! LaLa^ ,_^! oLaj^j^l Jjl (^,^JJ 
(JiaJj ^ (Jill ((AijJjJjIalJl)) CjLaxJl jl j_aSjJsJLj d-ii^^t L^l -3^^ j^^-als. 



Lf^' ^Ui^l jJ! ^ ^j^ ji 4.^j ,^>US ^U IjLi^ ^j }j^ ^UlJ! 
liJ! )j-a Jflj-kj^ SUJ^^j (J_j.u.ii^) ISj ^u_ki ^ <^L_i^l ^>i djjj; 

:^j«^l oa^ dij .t>UaJ! Saj^ J^:^ ^ ^^1 oLoaJ! ^ Uj^^=^ 

^ C5^=^^^ ^^^J '<>^' O^^^J U^I>Ia LjjU: Jl^UU! ^jj£j Ujj 

4-JU A^jj Jl <^ j^^ L^jj^ ^U-; ^-^A ^ <i a 'w^.j ^jUJ! ^UiJI 

t^ ^-^l^^iJ! Jl^LaiJI lla ^ -LslL^SJ Laj <J>iUI c>a^J Sj^^I ^^ 

u' (5j^ la^j .-Lilj-lolj ajLa_j) ^ i3 J "t'> ' lij J-aJij 2r-^=uU! Sa>^ 



lll—Obi-l 



j-aijiiJI idij j^J_c. A J ^. m " H 6J_^ o^ j_.-al_i |Jj . prosodic features 

iaUjji I4J t_^uJj ^! fh^^-ijj ^ (>> <i^ jjJa^! j^«1j ^1 S Jja-^i^i 
ULi^l diO^aw LoS iL^jlj 3j^3^' ^^J^ ill^U (^>*>i j^ljia lA^. LfAikj 
O^^^J '.>^' ^J.>^^=4 islAiLJI^^jjjlj CjL^^>:J! u-^i^ iJ^J ((iLiJI Cjj-aJ 

J^LoJl^j <word " junction ^^^! J^j Si£. (^^Vl ^j^^i^ljl^! 



.A_j^liJi oLaA^jiJLj tjj^Vl ftLii:^ La ^^ (ijjjj^jkj jjjtjii) prosodies 

t_j^Lk Phonology Li:a.^^^liJl (>a ^^ jl ^Uli J^i^^ tjij-*'^' ^ l?4^' 
^^ ^U-.! l U^jlj't'all — Prosodic Phonology aLo^- (jj^l^^kJI aXa 4_ujljdJ 

j^^'^ll dLja^^_lJ 1 ^^ :^" *iSj-=^^ ^^^-^J^J^ 4_aJij! JI ^s_(-ilj (System 
A_a J-sl-^l jlc polysystmatic principle S^AJajV! jjaIj ji.VI ^ Ja-alLall 

^\j ,U^ ^ ^l^^^^'-i jy*^S J-* '^^ "^-T-S-^ C5^' ?^4^' '^J 

LlLa£, j-i-ttij '-S^^ ^ O-aj ,J>=».J-aJI ^^Ijl^l J-oaJI lla ^ Lfli^ jAaJl 

A_a4i (j^*^ CjI JiLj >ilil tj^J -f^^^^'j ->^' t^J *^ ^"^ L?^..?-^' 
j^,aSa3^)l-t^^*ji syllable g...Li-all ^[^>-JilJU VU "a^^-v ^U^l^i jl 

(^Ij «iaiJl) 2a^| JH^VS dlAj ■A.Aj-t ^i UiJ syllabic structure 

.4_L«L«lj j_yjj^l ?bV(^ijS ^ 




r 



^ 








k 



J 




Syllable & Stress 

1 "tj^^*^ A^il^l ijK AJ ^j .^^AJ CjIjLal ^ SjLol >iJJlj ^,>^' J^'-^ 



/jlj f4_&KJI ^ ^>^-^b sound o,>^l o-d ,>j^l (^^Jj^l jl t^^-^1 

jl a-IaII f^-J-ii C(tj-^» '■ iji* '--i^'J ^i-iai* (j-a (J^_^S1j oLa^ oLLa OJLS 

_ a 'f - 



^_^-£i^ ^s^\j ^XIa (j-0 Cx$^ tj^' A_JSJIj .[man, min] J^ !lL L&j^ 

o^ J^^ U-* J ^^ ^ " " j_y^l tjf^ ^_y^ ^monosyllabic word »« Ua^ll a^jL^.!)) 

. polysyllabic word «*Jal.UI SjjxIa)) 1 ;; »1^ JIL. ■ La. 

<t5£aJll (_yi ajjja. ui^^JLiJj ^InSoll djjj ^1 \^jx} ■ aa-;.!1 ^j^^ajj 

^^ 1^1 ,>^^ t^l Sao^l oLa^ji-ail c>Ajlj ^_j_4]L»JI ^,_^I oI^I ^^ 
-^ Jl ts-UL«Jt ui^ilikl Lj^^jl^I iia ^y: ^^iij .^jAxujIjJI ^U! Sj^Ui 

(_>-=La^l j_yJ^^i^l i_ijL=JI ^y=^ UiJ ^ ,■>(]'>-■> fl .^jLiJI Ij^ ^ U j-^ I,, 

Ijj^Iti oj>klj *antic ulation ^Ja^\ ^JlkLil : ^f . Phonetic aspect 
(_5-fiA]ijJI ^^Jl : ^\ t - , < . '>. II Ijlojua Phonolagical (((_^jJ^^liJI)) i_tSUJI 

^)j^*A:i ^ I j < I .n (jA^I j^j_i^l ^UJLj ^jj j_2^VI (jjJjVl 
is^ «<jjjx^ 4.ii^)) <UL ^JaUl f^^^AJ (Physiological JklU ^^y.^^\ 
^^i^^ijV .'lj>lii ^U^-a ^^jIjU^^ ''^ L>^j .^JaUL JklJ! jli; emphasis 

- * 1 - 



Ijjjf mi^l ^4i^l>i-J {_ff^>^' LJ^UJL; tlhJJ^VI t> o^ 3iJ^J 
.audable ^^ilU ^.-»^m1i ^UJi ^^ 6Jjj^j j-kiJl ^Aij*^ c^ jUl^VI 

jjSi Lai a:S>=J1j ^vowel S^^l j^-k SiLa AJLaltj V ^^^1 ^-^ J^ >* 
j5j .ol^^-^Vl ^jlLJ liuxlJL (yt-^uJt ^^^1 2^ lA^ ^j>»-^ j^ 
<oVUJl Jl (ji <^ jUl^VI ijl^V ijJ c5^<-«-J' ^slLoJI liA (IjI ^j 
J Ul .oUU) cK^*^ ij' c.[£j^\ t> ^UJl ^ ^kl^ ^1^ J5 31 
[n J i] oj^ ^ Lai 'L^Ia^ Uki-» [jjlj a5 SjLsL^I ol,>^VI (_k^^ 
.[bst / n] batten j [bot /I] bottle i^l^ ^^j^aL^VI oLJUI (^ji:*^ ^ 

j_yj acoustic (c^^l^jl'i/!)) c^LJLi IlU s^-Vj-a ^ dJU Jj^j 

ij^ ^^jUj .^-^^Jl ^j^^! Sai^ ^ ii"i ^^>^ l4^Lu^V vowels ollj^t 
VLu> ...^b Jjf^i jLi^ Jl o^j'^' t> ^^-^1 W^ "^ '"^ 

^_g^jJj.liJtjUji_JLj-^>Aj Lsj-AjUjlJ' iJ-a .j-kl^l ^j-»^ Ji 

o^ ^ ^LUI ^^^>JiU! JiVi .6l>-! jW^' '-^ f'^J -Phonological 

U>3^ Jl^ - SjLOi ^ - (j^ Jl 'LgJ-i^ '^I'LJalj LfljUjl^j LfXil^ 

3a^^^ J^t^ ^ J ^ 6' i^^^ t ^^' ^•^■'-^ cH* clusters a^iiLlii ji 

— * — 



<^^^l d,ljill ^ (^UJi ^^^^) ..^j^i,, ^ji^^ ^^^ ^^ 
^^ j! U4JI.LIX. ^a.j L^a^^^:^ ^Uh Ugjlr ,^^( ,UJU dJ jj 

L^iiV ,j_^u j.^^ jj=ajj ^^j^j^i ij^ ^1 ^^ji ^ ^^ 



- a.l- 



:«^^1 ,^i^^l» ^ J^ .^)j^'' ^^^ ,^15^'.^' L.I 

^^1 <G^^.axa^ ^^Ij -ajj-^^i ^i:^')) ,5^-^ *^^ ^'^ 6-.^ '(S.>^-^ 

.''' « Jjjiai! ^a3ii ■^ji^ ULs Jj^ cD^-a^ 2r^ H 

j^.^' l^j^M^ ^ JSUl J <^ Ijj^^, £i^' 5^5^ ^J^ cs^b^' 0' 
Sjjt^l Ajii^i ^^^ Ji AiLj.)/Lj llA -o^J^-i-^ '^J c> ^^^^' 

j^:ii.vi ^^ J^U lKiI' ^J'^ ^^ '^'^ '^^' uui ^ u^ 



_ 'V - 



■ M'-^j £i.UJI ^^- oUi^ J^i^i ^ ^^ ^ u»,^^l ^1 

60^ AO^w: J^ ,(a^ Ui ^1) ,J^^| ^j^L^ j^^i ^usji. 
.Ai^ Ai_^ ^> jj,^! ^.Jiii] L^ i^^.f^ ^^1^ L_^l 

6' tiJ u-Jj .^.^ ^ c^L^l^V! J4!j ^_^! ^1^1 ^i^ u^>^ 

c>j c> ^c5^Wj' Sjj-^ aiL^j ^IjV! !d^ ^i dJj -c^^i <^^ ^lih 

■ v->*^l H^l (> f^ JU ^.i^l 4iUiJlj oIjUU Liiij *^r Jl ^^ 
c^K'L^ C.U4UI .a^ .j:^V| ^ ^vi ..^ ^ ^^t j^i 

c> J:J^ cr^ ck 'v^--^ ,^^1.1^1 ^^1 ^Lki ^ V <^^UJ| A^^^l 
- t^i ^^^j c«t^>^ .oU^^I ^lA ^Lhj L4:jU^^ U^^Lu. 

- O'A - 



d^^^ syllabic structure ^yikiAJi l-^_>i1I ^jill (^ LlL_i^j 
^jJI Phonological j^^^jJ^JLiJ! jj-g-loJI j.^ .U-iL^ jj^XJI u-L^^jJU 
^ li^j^ oUli^j 2^j--^l o! J^jJI oLs-;LIj ^ J^^ ^J^ s^l^ 
^UJI JU^l ^jl*^V \l&j .^^IIJI UJ^ ^ S>^ ^l^ jl f>- J^ 
Ijj^y^ ^ . ; >.-. j ^ LjU^I ^I j^I Jl .ULj VUji[ Phonetic ^^j-^^ 

phonology U^^,^l jjaj J.-^! u^V <g1 Sj-a t> _A^I ^jj^ ^ J^jj 
.ol^AJt Jl s^aJI ;> oUj:ili^ U^ jl <UlJ :iU-=^ Phonetics d^U^ij 

. Sj^ j_^ 3JiJ J^ 2^*4Ak j^ U-ijj^ Jj'^j 2r^U^ 6jjd^ 
jl^ i^^\ ^^ ^i^Ul a! 3^^i ^^^^b o-j-i^W ^ a^ -^h 

U-^jl ub '^>=H '^^"^ ^-^ '6:?^^-'^ tJrPJ^^^ l'^'^ 2:klJI — t 
^ U^ .llj^! Li-aUJl oU^UI 0-=^ LS^ Jj*^' Sj^>^5 ^^J 

. st/eidd J ■»"... (^) Jio ^ u^IaI^ «2_JU)) ^^^ 



'<^^) ^ 2^:0^ SJ>^^I i^UJI ^1^^ j^u^i ^^.^i J3_^ 

<^>JI .L^kn: U Jl ^^ ,;^u^ i^j^^ ^^^_^^l ^^^ .lLjU\j 
c> :>ll. L^ ^ L^ .^5U ,^^5^^ .^ V-j V-- J^ '<--l3» 

X^J^ Ukl. a4^ 4^^^ ^'L_ ^ ^^^, ^j^j ^,^^, ^,^1 



CI 

J^JU <uJI>^^ .s,>,u-^ ;^^^^ c^L^ ^^j_^ ^ a>^^ 

- consonant + short vowel [C V] ^UJI ^j^\ ^^Jl 



-:^ ^ Jj V) 2-i.^l ^L±^^ .[CVC] ^1 (^ ^ ^) .^L_ 



.[ka/tab/tu] c^aI^ ^ ^UJU .[yak/tu/bu] 



JCVVl jl (r r o^) Ht^ ^j^ + Ci-aU^ Oj^-a j^lSJI ia^( 

^ JjS/i 2-1=^1 ^^j ■[ kaa / ti / bn ] LjLS ^ JjVl ^^=^^3 ^iJ^j 



U^ jl ^U) ^^ «S^» ^tiaj .[CVCC] jl (o-^ o^ ^ o^) c^l-^ 
^^jJU ^jsj isjj^ ^JaiJI llaj .[burr] - [birr] - [barr] 14^.^ j! 

-j^ . J . -^ + CA^U-a ClJjj-'a + ^^-U>^ ^J^ "•" O-cL^ Oj-i-i» :4jJl^< 

^ ^ ^LUl ^^=^^\ aMI^j .[CVVCC] ji (^ ^^ ^ ^ o^) c^L-^ 
^j£. jl ^_i5^Lj 4£^j ^j,>^ <iiLa^ ^Jalall I Iaj . [ma/haamm] ^Lf-s 



. [daal / liin] ^L^. ^ JjVl ^J=^! : ^lx.j .[CVVC] jf <(u- 
cj^^l ^j^ J : 0^1 t> ^1^ ^j^j ^jj^ t^i=^' '•i^J 

.[ya/quul] :^iS^I JU ^ : J^ G) Ji^ v*->^?^' f-^^^ '-^^' 



- ass - 



{Jaab/bu^ ((^LS.)) c> Vj. [/a/?b/bun] «^U„) : u^jiu; .>4^ i.^^ 

J^li .c.Lli^,^^i ^^A^ ^ (^r, ^) ^^ ^^^ _5_^, ^^^ 
(<L UJI 4_.^l) aJaJI ^^ o^^ [ya / quu / lu] «0^,> ^^L^j 
(^L) c^) ^1^1 ^^ ^j^ [ya/qui] Jij (^)„ ^J^| ^ ^^^^ 
cjl - ^ j^lj . JkUl ^ 5£^=Jj ^^.^j^,^ ^^ \^y ^^^ 's/j ^j^j^ 

^ U^d^^j^Vl c^UJ! ^2^ ^L ^j^^ aiiJj [CVVC] ^JOJ! ^ 

'^ ^L.a-:^ U jji. ^j^ £^^_^ ^^ ■J:}-^,>^ (>^U= ^ ^-.^. 

^UJ! ^ UJL 5,^! ^^^ ■'U^^j ^U ^^i \l^ LL^^i ^^ 

.(c^LUJI ,^J^^ ^ ^j^ ^j^j) LJVjj La,>^j L^,>^ ^^) 

: Stress >;(_JJI 

e^j) Sjj-^ UKJI ^Li^ ^ ^J^j^ jj^ ^^_^ ,^>-Jl u-jjJ\ 
Jl L4^Axa ^ ^1 S^UxJi U=^j^! olj^Vl ^> dl.,.l.., ^ 



OSY - 



Jdj AjLc^^^lli t_JJbILij .stressed <»jj-i1a t tUln jl LJ^^-ua ^j-^^^^ &jjW^ 

■ t^a^ll [da] ^1,1 J^ ([da/ra/ba] (^/j/_^) ^ili^ «^^)) (^J aJ>^*^f 

^^ [ruub] « US^l l ^j [kaa/tib] <{l-uI^)) c> [kaa] ^-kl^Jl ^_^ L^l 

.[ma(!/'ruubl ((^j^>.t-kA« 

Ija^Lj Secondry Phoneme LijjLj La^jJ ^ q . A-» j aJ-c aij .ji!iUaJlj 
((j-ijJjiJIj Jj>9^l J>?-a j^ylsijV^jjkj j-aj .prosodic feature ^j^^klj I ^^ 
S.l=..j A_JSJI (>s Ja^^ c^oJl j-oVI .L4J L^Lk IjhHil* U)^ ^ -^ '' ^ J J 

^ JjVl ^I^^l ^^ U^ .^1 Ji SjJ^U-^ jjh4-^l 2r-^=^XJI 5_^lj-j 

- Qsr - 



_>^l Uf cvaa/ti/luu/hum. a^^U)) J,^ J^Vl ^ckUl ^ US . Jl^l Jl 
c^^l ^i .^..^.^ U UlUj .^US ^^ ^^^ SjU d^>i^ O^^uukJI 

.^UVI :oUja 2^^1 Jl ^! u^S^\ 6^>-Vf <-iL^j 

^ j^t /jLi..^ ^ ffr-^ 2-* '-^J^--^ .Phonemic U^jJi^ MjU" 

t> V.>^ ^W UjJ^i <4-^ '-^ ^y^ ^ ^Lj^li U^ji 4^j.i£ 

L4il^j L^^LiiJ J..!^ .UKil ^Xo i> ^^ ^) ^^^1 3^>UJ 
t> ^ . (<.Aj^j) ^jJj^ (^>^b (<^il=^) ^>-o ^ ^^^ 

.(ka/tab/tu) c^ ^ ^HJl ^ ^ ^^^ ^ j^Vj ^J^U! ^ (ka/ta/ba) 

. (ka / tab / tu / hu) <i^ ^ cJLDi ^^ , 

o^ 3J=^ ^ :ili^ .^j J^:iU L^ , (j^ Uij;>k:l) . accent ^j^U ^J3_^^ 
JJalU! j! , ^^^1 <^^) ^K^ iji^i ^ ^^^^ u. UjLL^ j^iJL^l .-,1^^ 



.:^.j^ ( contrast <ijLLa]l j) emphasis jo^LlJ! Jiij ^La-jjj ^>^1 j^^ 
j! a^llJ! !1a (jLh Jl Ij.-^ < t5>=-! JI 2_^ ^> ^^^1 ^1 Jill* 

*■ *■ -^ ,^ 

( i j"l »t (j'*j| L4jU1jj ^jsSlj t ^ nKli i-sjj<j J^'j^ 6-« ^Lc ,>AJjf j,>^ 
^^Ij^ ^ ^ c^jL^' fixed cajLU! >^? o! J oLaJJl ^ A_c^Ui^j 

sJaLi^ jl Ijtkl^ <-ajJ>ii b'.>^-*-^b- ^^ -^^ ^J^ C^J^' oLaJ dLlAj 

oioj (J| 4_il.a^ s3d>^ j^' '-^'i^^ ^>=^j oLiJJ! aJ-a ^ 

.^.^^ ( free ^>iJI j^\ cj\jj Cj^ <a1 L^l . ^^iiil cuU ^Lkj Lgj jj^J 

- ON - 



l.^\ ^ L^ -.^y\ UKJI ,^ ^F J! ^Ll. ^ L4^ ^! Jiil, 

Iji J^i L^j JjVi ^^.Ui J^ ^1 ^l^ i3( ^1 ^ . :iix* record 

^-ka^ t> JUliV! ^ <X3>^ jl Uia^ Lsl^ ^jj^j ^1 oUi .^^-^ 

J^LUI jf free stress ^! ^j ^j^j ci.UUU j_y:UJIj . fixed c*^LiJi 
ol ^^e^ ' ^^^ ^^i JjVI *_ii^) Ulii ^^ . movable stress ^S^^ 

J U^\ i^>iU V! ^r Jl ^{^ ^ Jill, Vj . L4:jUJ1.j x*is:ji 
^!iliJI ^^LJI J^U . i-^i-^ jf A^U. a:SAj Ijh JkUl ^3jL=^l 

. (kaa / tib) ^^jAi^U 4_j£. ^^jJl aJU^ ^ 

6-^ ^J^ "^J^^ -LaKJI CiS-tA:^ I jl ^jj13I a-ij-a J^^ ^ ( f^ 

^>^>* cl>f^^>^ ^-.Ai^ j^ ^! cuLUi ^i ^ J^l i^^j 

- o\*\ - 



j^I jjji jUal^Ljj . l^LsiSi oL^j A^ikLJ! LpUj^j . -uJUl 
^ JLJI^ IJAj . f^l^i c^->^ 'Ui!^ ^j^j ' ^/.y^^ o*^^.^^' 

jyW (_^ jl , ^1 ^i oijj o'jlUI o^ ^3^)^' ^^' ^j 

stress <(^! ^j^» ^^-^-^ Ui ^X^ ^\ ci>l.^t ^> UJ 1^1 . S^Jlii ^ 
■ d-.y..^-; ^3<L<u ^dJl record JLUU U.U di J Jl U^l U^ ^ variations 

_j^ diliJj Stress languages Ij^ otiJ : >=^l ' qj^<^" oti-Uj 
>_^.tl j^-^j ^! dlb ^ ^.LH^' oUULs.. stressless languages A_j^ 

. LhU^VIj LiiujVij 5L^>l^Vi oU-UI ^j Uloi t>j . 2-^KJ! c> 

increase, import , : j^^^ ^ La^ '*^-aJ!j^j j^! cA^j^ .ji^ lt^*^' 
^^j^ j5 . ^^ U_>a£j 2JlaVl alA (^ .. ^t subject , conduct , record 

.VUil c^l^ (c^^' j') ^^' u^ ub ' *^^' oUlD! fi.lA .^.iLu^ 

^i U^jji iJl ^U.jwmIj A_a^ ol^ j-*'VI llAj . ^-.Jlii ^UJi i^-i^^l 
4JU.JJ ^ ^JilLj is'-^S S^l j^l cDijJ oUUl ^> (Lflli-lj) ^^' ^'^ 

- oNV - 



L^Ij ^ (ka/ta/ba) ^ ^^Li . Uill c^l^jl^ ^ ^^l^ J ^ 
^j (ka/'tab/tu) cx£l^^^ ^ ^UJI ^^ .J^VJ ^J^^! ^ !^!^ 
t^^' 2-^!j^ ^ SjjUJI 6l4^ (ka/tab/lu/hu) a:1aI£ ^ ^UJI 
J^ u! ^^:*;^^ ' variation A_JlJi ^^ ^^ Uj^ ^_^ V ^^Oli oUKJ! 
l^K]\ oU^ ..u*.^ , di J jl ,^5l.iJ! ;_^_>iJI I J4J jjl^ c^U ^^ 

dJj^>J:5.i . ai*»6rit5>L^ ^^^ ji^j^Oo ^iJi^ ^^1 oUdjj 

^LUS ^lliiu^Lj Li^jIj A-jjUol* ^j^ t^jUJ) Ujii 2_U^! j_^ 

LS^ Uj-a^ ^-:L>A1' ^Ulll (2j-o U^ ^ A^m/jjU) liiJ! cd^^>liLiJj 

emphasis , intensity , and . ^jLaJ) jljj^^i ^1 j^LlJI .>.>.5< . 2^Lk 
!^ ^UuVi I4JI <^^! oUKJ! ,^_lllj c:,VUJ! ^^Ia ^ .contrast 
c>J . oLaK ^ UjjUj U ,^ 2r^ Li^j SjU ^U-,^- L^ sJj ^jM 

jcl^ ^.A-^" V j^j) monosyllabic words Jj^i^i ^k i>JI otj J oUKll 



jui A^l^i o^UaJ Li^U-o U^>J ^'^Ls^j-i ^JJ^J ^H-i' ^-M=J^ ^-^^^ 
6J_^ ?■ *^ - Lg-5 LiiuLla]! oLsLLaJl ^^lli.Ljj l4^**-aj J-<^' i„s!iCLkLj 



Ji ^-^^L^^ ^i ^ 4_)jLi-JJ ojLxJI wLsl^l ^ o_jj^lJI LL^l 
. ^L^ilu.-^) oljJj S^U^Vl ^U^l (T) oU^t (Y) ^U^Vl (^) 



■ ^^' J^jj 6f:i^) 6f^ <^_^iii^ j^^4^ Jl^U^^^i^j . JLJI 
^^^ ^-^ ^)4^j ■ ^ ^U^ 6*^»-* ^' J J-^ !^ j' * L>^L^ (^\h -i-'-'ii^ 

((^1 w,^! !)) ^Vlj «J^1» JaUI ^_^^jjAJI «_aj ^jLlsJI ^^lj_aJI qq 

Jli: < Ul ^>ia^l ^^ j^\ ^ jli . Jj^^lUI j_yij(-allj ._. jiU^i l ^J^Jk\\ 
Jic ^illa illtJI 5Jlj[ ,^,^0j <{ V)) j^^l Sljl j_jj£. dJ j£ ^^1 «_Lj OSj 

ji j! * ajlc SjU Jlaj ^JliJI ^^ d^^iuJ! Ij^ ^1 (jUJ ((SjU)) S_^ 



- or* 



. Al^\ 5JLJI ._i-^ ^ Uaa^ ji Uz^^-'J ->^*^ C5^' ^^ 
SU-,..^ ^U^ oaij Ijj . ^1 L^ ^ ^ (t^j^ijLJtjiVi) (V) 

. ^^LiJI L^L^ L^J u:^^ u^^ ^^^ ^^ 

: Ji^ J..S1* ji-:^ J! <iL^)^i u^ ^'i^ o-sl^ *^^ ''^ .>4^ 
V ^ ^! 27^j Vlj Ax^U. <-i^jji ^LUI ^!11 ^ ^ U !dA 

: ^jli . jv^A^ ^>a1J! L^-lU 2:^x9 La jj^l^ ( j,'-^"^j 



LfK i-L^l^p^VI SjUaJI 61a ^ Jl^U ^LU! ._>^j'; ...^ ji oa^ 

Ci^LS Lsng-e -L^U_^ (^-'.^iii^ Ul^^ v*^^' ^^' J^ dL_aj 

'->^Mj fJj^' Sj-alili ljla_j ^ <Aj^) ^UL (j! ^> ^J) j^j 

C5^' ^^LhH^ J^^j LHa^laj ^^^l^J^ a5 L4:;|j <_ij^! ^^.^liJ ^jLi IIa 
. Jj^LlJi j! 3^jlJ! ji AjjllJL^ , ^IjA^ ^Ljj o^LLa oi J 



OTY - 



^jj_i J-^'a>i jj/^.A uAiiijj jjj^jjJI jl aJjLLJI ^]jLij aMa\ ^j^ii 






'L4I0J ,[Vi : ^)] ^J^i>^j21 Aii! ^[^ : aJU^a^ ^3^3^ J^ f ^b 
Lfflj . L4JLilj^ t>^ Cr^J-* t^' cr^ j' ^-L«J! <jlaj i^ ^x^\ cjji^! '-A^>> 

. j2>Aa_J! aLEaI! ^ ^^'^"^^ 4_i^Li. Sjj-«=lj Lajl^ia^ 
_jA^_lU 2-^A^ ^,>^' oli-JJl ^ (_s-lj5-ail cIjI t^a .J^JjJ! ,^-l_a^L_j 

-j^.lj'aXj 'AjL^jJj ^^xA\ ^Ij-a ^hJJ-^ (d_aJ^S i^^fiu^^A ^^^ ^^-^Lkjj) 

*Uilj^ ^ ^^ iit;A^ i "^jj^ fixed ^^Lj tjf^iji J J '-^HH^ tlhHj-^''^^' 



UT^ t^W ^^>^»JI o'^ '-^^P-' ^'i^^'dj '^^i^ (S^'^ J^ ■ ^-^ f-i ^-^ 

' j^^^ ^ j^^ a^'j^ o' ai^^^j . 2-^U. 5_j_jaaa:; (_>^)^V L^jbjl^j 

«a^ Ci-iilii,! ^^Ij . UjU aU^II j>ujt j^I^I JlJhjU oVUJ) J^ .^^j 
t «Li.^LA j) S_j_^Lj , *LiiL^i <jJVj j^!jL> \j^\ OU.JJ jaAj t_Aiu-j) 



' t5>>^' ^^-J-4^ J-a^ L?-^^>"^ C"^ ->^' t^!-^ ' J-**^' tl>^ ^-^^J 

'Jjii L?^ J^^ C5^' A^iA^^! ((4_ij^l» ^_^.^Li£. ^ j^^liL JLJ! 
t> ojUJ) ^^HU (^!jV) ^,>1i]) tj^ JhH-^' Jf*^' 6-^ tj*^ ^-^ 



. J^kloii (ysJaUl ^^1 ^":ki^^ UI3 < S^U. 4^ik: SjUJ Ul 

^^1 ^>JIj j)^l^ Lf^lj 4.=.^..^! UU (^^V! 4a.^1 ol4^! 
^ /j^^aII^ ^[. XaUI 60^ ^ ^^j^ C^U^ '^'i^J ^^' Lr^->^^' 
ji <^ j'w^l^VI ;j^ jls^ CijU jLajl^ ^^lj_i_L]j < <_Mi.UJ! 2_L_kJl 

IJ^^I oU-fll ^.r^^^' ^^^'^' uf^ AJjLU! Ji LUUJi L. ijij 

^ fe^l^j^l ^ oAj ll^LL 0^1 Uj^^ ^^! o^jJl ^ ^UJ) 



OLjXi: 



UUI yU^t ofi oLn^i ^^iHi-l oljUl > lj\J \~^^j "^^^^ 
^)ji jl£ ^^i ^ J! ^.al-^ Ual£ csjiij ai^t SjU! j-^j . ^-s^l 

, record j^Ji ^ \^ * c^^' ^^^ J^ Jb ^>* f^' Jl*'-^^ 



c^>L^t^a^^j^,iUiS>«V)y^j . stress languages <^_>jAJI oUUL 

(^^^.^l ,^^^1 j^d^ Jl UU^I UjJ:.^ .^^Kfl a II .^^1 ^^ 
j^UJS J^l J J^ ^^^i:j 6f^3jJ! t>sjbJi Jit ^i ja\^ lA<\\ 
IjU .[ka/ ta / ba] ^^ ^ La^ J^V) oO:^ ^^^^lo jj^=^l ^:iLUl 

{ka / lab /"tu / hu]^ [ka / tab / tu] ^^ L^ . J^l I j^ ^«£^, ^^^ i^^^ 
^ cJUJi J^j J^Vi JUoJl ^ ^LU! ^^\ ^ ^1 2^j .±u^ 
J>H^ a>=^} t_^yil! t> j£:UJI ^! jji ^3^ jjk^ ^ U <Lll6j .^UJS 
.[kaa/ti/bun] ^^ [kaa/tib] : 4^ljcl JU ^1^1 J^j ^\j^\j^ ^ ^J 

cullJ! Aj-p aJ 2-ij-s J^ ul -^' 2^0>i t^ <^j^J > variation L^jLilj^o 
-Jj^UiidJjj^J LijibI USia.«KU^a^a25luyS^!uuii^.fixedj^^l 

^Hj^l ;^ '-*S ■ ^! 2r^!j^ ^jiij ^^.^i jsk3^ dw^ '<:j^i oUHi 

s- 



Jl U_^t U ^ .^i SjjLLJi jl j^liJL^ ,ll^\ ^-i^^H^' ^^' 

^JoLUl [j-a /<Jai^ Jki (^! < stress ^Jkc^a^ Lij!j-a accent ^J>J^VI 

■j^ l^lU.^.i l ^j4i^ j^llJI ^U^ilu. VI ^otj J>j^^' t> J^ J-^ ^ 
_^Vl jM&j ^ JjV) . Ja5JI (^j^l o"j^i t^ o'-^.N-^ *^ ^^c^"*^ 

SjUl U,i.a^ W^J ' Slktjl^ Sjj^ ^;iUJ) aJ^j . A-aiii^ oIIj-; 

jl£, ^4!^ oLcj-a^-o j! jl^VLi S_4^LiJI A_iiiall! JoLAJVi i^AJ 3;iJ^i 

j_gi ^j^l t^^^J*-^ ((20^1)) jJi t,r^^' '^ (^.^^ ^\U,^^ V'^b 

^ !illd OjUuJ! ((AilJj)) ajjUaII «liU» (Ji^^ 6' 6^ '-l^ c>J 
<JI>«Vl ^^UJlj A^il^j^Vf S^JklU! Jl U^l jLiu. U^ . ^j^i 6^^) 
Australian accent , JLLii * l-T^-J^Vl 3-^ cs"^ ^^'-^j-f^' A_l^Uij 
Jki (^ ^j! 5^^^ iJiliJI ^>4^ U UiUj Affierican accent , British 
. foreign accent allj^ (_s-^^^J ^ f-fJ^ ^>^ *_iJL^ Vl 



^ \1aj . accent ^^y^AlJ (cL^)) ^Itn.^MJ -^^-a^. ^-^J^jj Lajjj 
(LU^^^^aaj <.i1UI) accent ^jl dJ J . 5_j.alsJI JiiJI 4_^j jj-* lU-^ Jj ^3_JJ 

oUjlu^lj (^^IjAJI ^j rt-> j3_o J_j , .„wi^ <t <_jJLkUI S j^ l '.II ^ V 
u-* v*->^ ^' L5-^ • grammatical ^.^^j M^j ^>^ <2_jjiiJl 
'f j-f^' llf-j ((^.^^J)) ^ \U '^ ^ \\ «-LJijj 3j^^ ^ ... " i lj JjjLaJLJI 
* ^^ ''^" ^ ij^^ ' ((2=4«U. ^^A^)) JLlji ((L^Li.)) ciiAiJLj Aiu^j Ikj^n. 

accented word jIIl^. JLiji * 6jjUj Lu UjLLo ^ ^Lal^ Vlj JkUi I j^ 
^al^jj La LJli. ^jia_JI !^ accent ^JkL.a-JI IIaj , phrase or sentence 
o!^l ji oUiiiJI Jl SjU.)U . ^..LtJ) ji ^^kUI ^y^\ JJU^ Uj:^ 
^^>:U-*^^' c> 6j^' '^ t^j ^..^-^; UJj j5j .j^tzJ\ Ciij ^ ajjLJi beats 

i4^L^=4 Lu ^r^S^I ^j^ ^,>*<^ Jl^^jJiAj Lu accent ^lU.^.ll^ 
oj^S j^U^jij (cL>L^^I 5_^Lkj) ci.i^>u^V! ,j.i^ Jk: ^ ukj^ t> 

(^ JjW jj^ accent ^^^^UJi t^,>^i ^j^' Sl<&j stress ^>^j 

. <£.^1a <U^siJ o^U ajljLuoij <A^l^i ^^IxiMj^